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Giant Viruses of Amoebas: An Update.
Front Microbiol. 2016; 7:349.FM

Abstract

During the 12 past years, five new or putative virus families encompassing several members, namely Mimiviridae, Marseilleviridae, pandoraviruses, faustoviruses, and virophages were described. In addition, Pithovirus sibericum and Mollivirus sibericum represent type strains of putative new giant virus families. All these viruses were isolated using amoebal coculture methods. These giant viruses were linked by phylogenomic analyses to other large DNA viruses. They were then proposed to be classified in a new viral order, the Megavirales, on the basis of their common origin, as shown by a set of ancestral genes encoding key viral functions, a common virion architecture, and shared major biological features including replication inside cytoplasmic factories. Megavirales is increasingly demonstrated to stand in the tree of life aside Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya, and the megavirus ancestor is suspected to be as ancient as cellular ancestors. In addition, giant amoebal viruses are visible under a light microscope and display many phenotypic and genomic features not found in other viruses, while they share other characteristics with parasitic microbes. Moreover, these organisms appear to be common inhabitants of our biosphere, and mimiviruses and marseilleviruses were isolated from human samples and associated to diseases. In the present review, we describe the main features and recent findings on these giant amoebal viruses and virophages.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes, UM63 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 7278 Institut de Recherche pour le Développement 198 Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1095, Aix-Marseille UniversitéMarseille, France; Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée Infection, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Timone, Pôle des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Clinique et Biologique, Fédération de Bactériologie-Hygiène-VirologieMarseille, France.Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes, UM63 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 7278 Institut de Recherche pour le Développement 198 Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1095, Aix-Marseille UniversitéMarseille, France; Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée Infection, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Timone, Pôle des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Clinique et Biologique, Fédération de Bactériologie-Hygiène-VirologieMarseille, France.Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes, UM63 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 7278 Institut de Recherche pour le Développement 198 Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1095, Aix-Marseille UniversitéMarseille, France; Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée Infection, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Timone, Pôle des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Clinique et Biologique, Fédération de Bactériologie-Hygiène-VirologieMarseille, France.Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes, UM63 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 7278 Institut de Recherche pour le Développement 198 Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1095, Aix-Marseille UniversitéMarseille, France; Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée Infection, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Timone, Pôle des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Clinique et Biologique, Fédération de Bactériologie-Hygiène-VirologieMarseille, France.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27047465

Citation

Aherfi, Sarah, et al. "Giant Viruses of Amoebas: an Update." Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 7, 2016, p. 349.
Aherfi S, Colson P, La Scola B, et al. Giant Viruses of Amoebas: An Update. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:349.
Aherfi, S., Colson, P., La Scola, B., & Raoult, D. (2016). Giant Viruses of Amoebas: An Update. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7, 349. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00349
Aherfi S, et al. Giant Viruses of Amoebas: an Update. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:349. PubMed PMID: 27047465.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Giant Viruses of Amoebas: An Update. AU - Aherfi,Sarah, AU - Colson,Philippe, AU - La Scola,Bernard, AU - Raoult,Didier, Y1 - 2016/03/22/ PY - 2015/11/17/received PY - 2016/03/04/accepted PY - 2016/4/6/entrez PY - 2016/4/6/pubmed PY - 2016/4/6/medline KW - 4th TRUC KW - Acanthamoeba KW - Megavirales KW - amoeba KW - giant virus KW - mimivirus KW - virophage SP - 349 EP - 349 JF - Frontiers in microbiology JO - Front Microbiol VL - 7 N2 - During the 12 past years, five new or putative virus families encompassing several members, namely Mimiviridae, Marseilleviridae, pandoraviruses, faustoviruses, and virophages were described. In addition, Pithovirus sibericum and Mollivirus sibericum represent type strains of putative new giant virus families. All these viruses were isolated using amoebal coculture methods. These giant viruses were linked by phylogenomic analyses to other large DNA viruses. They were then proposed to be classified in a new viral order, the Megavirales, on the basis of their common origin, as shown by a set of ancestral genes encoding key viral functions, a common virion architecture, and shared major biological features including replication inside cytoplasmic factories. Megavirales is increasingly demonstrated to stand in the tree of life aside Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya, and the megavirus ancestor is suspected to be as ancient as cellular ancestors. In addition, giant amoebal viruses are visible under a light microscope and display many phenotypic and genomic features not found in other viruses, while they share other characteristics with parasitic microbes. Moreover, these organisms appear to be common inhabitants of our biosphere, and mimiviruses and marseilleviruses were isolated from human samples and associated to diseases. In the present review, we describe the main features and recent findings on these giant amoebal viruses and virophages. SN - 1664-302X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27047465/Giant_Viruses_of_Amoebas:_An_Update_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00349 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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