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National Estimates of Serum Total 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Metabolite Concentrations Measured by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry in the US Population during 2007-2010.
J Nutr. 2016 05; 146(5):1051-61.JN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The 2007-2010 NHANES provides the first US nationally representative serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations measured by standardized liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

OBJECTIVE

We describe patterns for total 25(OH)D and individual metabolites in persons aged ≥1 y stratified by race-ethnicity and grouped by demographic, intake, physiologic, and lifestyle variables.

METHODS

We measured 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3], 25-hydroxyergocalciferol [25(OH)D2], and C3-epimer of 25(OH)D3 [C3-epi-25(OH)D3] in serum samples (n = 15,652) from the 2007-2010 cross-sectional NHANES [total 25(OH)D = 25(OH)D3 + 25(OH)D2].

RESULTS

Concentrations (median, detection rate) of 25(OH)D3 (63.6 nmol/L, 100%) and C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (3.40 nmol/L, 86%) were generally detectable; 25(OH)D2 was detectable in 19% of the population. Total 25(OH)D, 25(OH)D3, and C3-epi-25(OH)D3 displayed similar demographic patterns and were strongly correlated (Spearman's r > 0.70). Concentrations of 25(OH)D2 (90th percentile) were much higher in persons aged ≥60 y (17.3 nmol/L) than in younger age groups (≤4.88 nmol/L). We noted significant race-ethnicity differences in mean total 25(OH)D [non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs), Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites (NHWs): 46.6, 57.2, and 75.2 nmol/L, respectively] and in the prevalence of total 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L overall (24% of NHBs, 6.4% of Hispanics, and 2.3% of NHWs) as well as stratified by season (winter months: 30% of NHBs, 7.5% of Hispanics, and 3.8% of NHWs; summer months: 17% of NHBs, 4.4% of Hispanics, and 1.6% of NHWs). Persons with higher vitamin D intakes (diet, supplements, or both) and those examined during May-October had significantly higher total 25(OH)D. Significant race-ethnicity interactions in a multiple linear regression model confirmed the necessity of providing race-ethnicity-specific estimates of total 25(OH)D.

CONCLUSIONS

Race-ethnicity differences in the prevalence of low total 25(OH)D remained strong even after adjustment for season to account for the NHANES design imbalance between season, latitude, and race-ethnicity. The strong correlation between C3-epi-25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D3 may be because the epimer is a metabolite of 25(OH)D3. The presence of 25(OH)D2 mainly in older persons is likely a result of high-dose prescription vitamin D2.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, Atlanta, GA;National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, Atlanta, GA;National Center for Health Statistics, CDC, Hyattsville, MD;Office of Dietary Supplements, NIH, Bethesda, MD; and.National Center for Health Statistics, CDC, Hyattsville, MD;Office of Dietary Supplements, NIH, Bethesda, MD; and.Office of Dietary Supplements, NIH, Bethesda, MD; and.Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Loyola University, Chicago, IL.National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, Atlanta, GA;National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, Atlanta, GA;National Center for Health Statistics, CDC, Hyattsville, MD;National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, Atlanta, GA; cpfeiffer@cdc.gov.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27052537

Citation

Schleicher, Rosemary L., et al. "National Estimates of Serum Total 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Metabolite Concentrations Measured By Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry in the US Population During 2007-2010." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 146, no. 5, 2016, pp. 1051-61.
Schleicher RL, Sternberg MR, Looker AC, et al. National Estimates of Serum Total 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Metabolite Concentrations Measured by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry in the US Population during 2007-2010. J Nutr. 2016;146(5):1051-61.
Schleicher, R. L., Sternberg, M. R., Looker, A. C., Yetley, E. A., Lacher, D. A., Sempos, C. T., Taylor, C. L., Durazo-Arvizu, R. A., Maw, K. L., Chaudhary-Webb, M., Johnson, C. L., & Pfeiffer, C. M. (2016). National Estimates of Serum Total 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Metabolite Concentrations Measured by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry in the US Population during 2007-2010. The Journal of Nutrition, 146(5), 1051-61. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.115.227728
Schleicher RL, et al. National Estimates of Serum Total 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Metabolite Concentrations Measured By Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry in the US Population During 2007-2010. J Nutr. 2016;146(5):1051-61. PubMed PMID: 27052537.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - National Estimates of Serum Total 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Metabolite Concentrations Measured by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry in the US Population during 2007-2010. AU - Schleicher,Rosemary L, AU - Sternberg,Maya R, AU - Looker,Anne C, AU - Yetley,Elizabeth A, AU - Lacher,David A, AU - Sempos,Christopher T, AU - Taylor,Christine L, AU - Durazo-Arvizu,Ramon A, AU - Maw,Khin L, AU - Chaudhary-Webb,Madhulika, AU - Johnson,Clifford L, AU - Pfeiffer,Christine M, Y1 - 2016/04/06/ PY - 2015/11/30/received PY - 2016/02/22/accepted PY - 2016/4/8/entrez PY - 2016/4/8/pubmed PY - 2017/6/10/medline KW - 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 KW - 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 KW - C3-epimer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 KW - LC-MS/MS KW - NHANES SP - 1051 EP - 61 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J Nutr VL - 146 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: The 2007-2010 NHANES provides the first US nationally representative serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations measured by standardized liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. OBJECTIVE: We describe patterns for total 25(OH)D and individual metabolites in persons aged ≥1 y stratified by race-ethnicity and grouped by demographic, intake, physiologic, and lifestyle variables. METHODS: We measured 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3], 25-hydroxyergocalciferol [25(OH)D2], and C3-epimer of 25(OH)D3 [C3-epi-25(OH)D3] in serum samples (n = 15,652) from the 2007-2010 cross-sectional NHANES [total 25(OH)D = 25(OH)D3 + 25(OH)D2]. RESULTS: Concentrations (median, detection rate) of 25(OH)D3 (63.6 nmol/L, 100%) and C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (3.40 nmol/L, 86%) were generally detectable; 25(OH)D2 was detectable in 19% of the population. Total 25(OH)D, 25(OH)D3, and C3-epi-25(OH)D3 displayed similar demographic patterns and were strongly correlated (Spearman's r > 0.70). Concentrations of 25(OH)D2 (90th percentile) were much higher in persons aged ≥60 y (17.3 nmol/L) than in younger age groups (≤4.88 nmol/L). We noted significant race-ethnicity differences in mean total 25(OH)D [non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs), Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites (NHWs): 46.6, 57.2, and 75.2 nmol/L, respectively] and in the prevalence of total 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L overall (24% of NHBs, 6.4% of Hispanics, and 2.3% of NHWs) as well as stratified by season (winter months: 30% of NHBs, 7.5% of Hispanics, and 3.8% of NHWs; summer months: 17% of NHBs, 4.4% of Hispanics, and 1.6% of NHWs). Persons with higher vitamin D intakes (diet, supplements, or both) and those examined during May-October had significantly higher total 25(OH)D. Significant race-ethnicity interactions in a multiple linear regression model confirmed the necessity of providing race-ethnicity-specific estimates of total 25(OH)D. CONCLUSIONS: Race-ethnicity differences in the prevalence of low total 25(OH)D remained strong even after adjustment for season to account for the NHANES design imbalance between season, latitude, and race-ethnicity. The strong correlation between C3-epi-25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D3 may be because the epimer is a metabolite of 25(OH)D3. The presence of 25(OH)D2 mainly in older persons is likely a result of high-dose prescription vitamin D2. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27052537/National_Estimates_of_Serum_Total_25_Hydroxyvitamin_D_and_Metabolite_Concentrations_Measured_by_Liquid_Chromatography_Tandem_Mass_Spectrometry_in_the_US_Population_during_2007_2010_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/jn.115.227728 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -