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Cofortification of ferric pyrophosphate and citric acid/trisodium citrate into extruded rice grains doubles iron bioavailability through in situ generation of soluble ferric pyrophosphate citrate complexes.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 May; 103(5):1252-9.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Iron fortification of rice is a promising strategy for improving iron nutrition. However, it is technically challenging because rice is consumed as intact grains, and ferric pyrophosphate (FePP), which is usually used for rice fortification, has low bioavailability.

OBJECTIVE

We investigated whether the addition of a citric acid/trisodium citrate (CA/TSC) mixture before extrusion increases iron absorption in humans from FePP-fortified extruded rice grains.

DESIGN

We conducted an iron absorption study in iron-sufficient young women (n = 20), in which each participant consumed 4 different meals (4 mg Fe/meal): 1) extruded FePP-fortified rice (No CA/TSC); 2) extruded FePP-fortified rice with CA/TSC added before extrusion (CA/TSC extruded); 3) extruded FePP-fortified rice with CA/TSC solution added after cooking and before consumption (CA/TSC solution); and 4) nonextruded rice fortified with a FeSO4 solution added after cooking and before consumption (reference). Iron absorption was calculated from erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes 14 d after administration. In in vitro experiments, we assessed the soluble and dialyzable iron from rice meals in which CA/TSC was added at different preparation stages and from meals with different iron:CA:TSC ratios.

RESULTS

Fractional iron absorption was significantly higher from CA/TSC-extruded meals (3.2%) than from No CA/TSC (1.7%) and CA/TSC solution (1.7%; all P < 0.05) and was not different from the FeSO4 reference meal (3.4%). In vitro solubility and dialyzability were higher in CA/TSC-extruded rice than in rice with No CA/TSC and CA/TSC solution, and solubility increased with higher amounts of added CA and TSC in extruded rice.

CONCLUSIONS

Iron bioavailability nearly doubled when CA/TSC was extruded with FePP into fortified rice, resulting in iron bioavailability comparable to that of FeSO4 We attribute this effect to an in situ generation of soluble FePP citrate moieties during extrusion and/or cooking because of the close physical proximity of FePP and CA/TSC in the extruded rice matrix. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02176759.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratories for Human Nutrition and laura.hackl@hest.ethz.ch.Laboratories for Human Nutrition and.Laboratories for Human Nutrition and.Laboratories for Human Nutrition and.Food and Soft Materials, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.Laboratories for Human Nutrition and.Laboratories for Human Nutrition and.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27053382

Citation

Hackl, Laura, et al. "Cofortification of Ferric Pyrophosphate and Citric Acid/trisodium Citrate Into Extruded Rice Grains Doubles Iron Bioavailability Through in Situ Generation of Soluble Ferric Pyrophosphate Citrate Complexes." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 103, no. 5, 2016, pp. 1252-9.
Hackl L, Cercamondi CI, Zeder C, et al. Cofortification of ferric pyrophosphate and citric acid/trisodium citrate into extruded rice grains doubles iron bioavailability through in situ generation of soluble ferric pyrophosphate citrate complexes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103(5):1252-9.
Hackl, L., Cercamondi, C. I., Zeder, C., Wild, D., Adelmann, H., Zimmermann, M. B., & Moretti, D. (2016). Cofortification of ferric pyrophosphate and citric acid/trisodium citrate into extruded rice grains doubles iron bioavailability through in situ generation of soluble ferric pyrophosphate citrate complexes. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 103(5), 1252-9. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.128173
Hackl L, et al. Cofortification of Ferric Pyrophosphate and Citric Acid/trisodium Citrate Into Extruded Rice Grains Doubles Iron Bioavailability Through in Situ Generation of Soluble Ferric Pyrophosphate Citrate Complexes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103(5):1252-9. PubMed PMID: 27053382.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cofortification of ferric pyrophosphate and citric acid/trisodium citrate into extruded rice grains doubles iron bioavailability through in situ generation of soluble ferric pyrophosphate citrate complexes. AU - Hackl,Laura, AU - Cercamondi,Colin I, AU - Zeder,Christophe, AU - Wild,Daniela, AU - Adelmann,Horst, AU - Zimmermann,Michael B, AU - Moretti,Diego, Y1 - 2016/04/06/ PY - 2015/12/10/received PY - 2016/03/08/accepted PY - 2016/4/8/entrez PY - 2016/4/8/pubmed PY - 2017/6/2/medline KW - extruded rice KW - ferric pyrophosphate KW - iron bioavailability KW - iron deficiency KW - iron fortification KW - trisodium citrate SP - 1252 EP - 9 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 103 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Iron fortification of rice is a promising strategy for improving iron nutrition. However, it is technically challenging because rice is consumed as intact grains, and ferric pyrophosphate (FePP), which is usually used for rice fortification, has low bioavailability. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the addition of a citric acid/trisodium citrate (CA/TSC) mixture before extrusion increases iron absorption in humans from FePP-fortified extruded rice grains. DESIGN: We conducted an iron absorption study in iron-sufficient young women (n = 20), in which each participant consumed 4 different meals (4 mg Fe/meal): 1) extruded FePP-fortified rice (No CA/TSC); 2) extruded FePP-fortified rice with CA/TSC added before extrusion (CA/TSC extruded); 3) extruded FePP-fortified rice with CA/TSC solution added after cooking and before consumption (CA/TSC solution); and 4) nonextruded rice fortified with a FeSO4 solution added after cooking and before consumption (reference). Iron absorption was calculated from erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes 14 d after administration. In in vitro experiments, we assessed the soluble and dialyzable iron from rice meals in which CA/TSC was added at different preparation stages and from meals with different iron:CA:TSC ratios. RESULTS: Fractional iron absorption was significantly higher from CA/TSC-extruded meals (3.2%) than from No CA/TSC (1.7%) and CA/TSC solution (1.7%; all P < 0.05) and was not different from the FeSO4 reference meal (3.4%). In vitro solubility and dialyzability were higher in CA/TSC-extruded rice than in rice with No CA/TSC and CA/TSC solution, and solubility increased with higher amounts of added CA and TSC in extruded rice. CONCLUSIONS: Iron bioavailability nearly doubled when CA/TSC was extruded with FePP into fortified rice, resulting in iron bioavailability comparable to that of FeSO4 We attribute this effect to an in situ generation of soluble FePP citrate moieties during extrusion and/or cooking because of the close physical proximity of FePP and CA/TSC in the extruded rice matrix. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02176759. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27053382/Cofortification_of_ferric_pyrophosphate_and_citric_acid/trisodium_citrate_into_extruded_rice_grains_doubles_iron_bioavailability_through_in_situ_generation_of_soluble_ferric_pyrophosphate_citrate_complexes_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.115.128173 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -