Advances of optical coherence tomography in myopia and pathologic myopia.Eye (Lond) 2016; 30(7):901-16E
The natural course of high-axial myopia is variable and the development of pathologic myopia is not fully understood. Advancements in optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology have revealed peculiar intraocular structures in highly myopic eyes and unprecedented pathologies that cause visual impairment. New OCT findings include posterior precortical vitreous pocket and precursor stages of posterior vitreous detachment; peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitation; morphological patterns of scleral inner curvature and dome-shaped macula. Swept source OCT is capable of imaging deeper layers in the posterior pole for investigation of optic nerve pits, stretched and thinned lamina cribrosa, elongated dural attachment at posterior scleral canal, and enlargement of retrobulbar subarachnoid spaces. This has therefore enabled further evaluation of various visual field defects in high myopia and the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. OCT has many potential clinical uses in managing visual impairing conditions in pathologic myopia. Understanding how retinal nerve fibers are redistributed in axial elongation will allow the development of auto-segmentation software for diagnosis and monitoring progression of glaucoma. OCT is indispensable in the diagnosis of various conditions associated with myopic traction maculopathy and monitoring of post-surgical outcomes. In addition, OCT is commonly used in the multimodal imaging assessment of myopic choroidal neovascularization. Biometry and topography of the retinal layers and choroid will soon be validated for the classification of myopic maculopathy for utilization in epidemiological studies as well as clinical trials.