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Meningococcal disease during the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings.
Int J Infect Dis. 2016 Jun; 47:60-4.IJ

Abstract

The Hajj and Umrah religious mass gatherings hosted by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia can facilitate the transmission of infectious diseases. The pilgrimages have been associated with a number of local and international outbreaks of meningococcal disease. These include serogroup A disease outbreaks in 1987 and throughout the 1990s and two international serogroup W135 outbreaks in 2000 and 2001. The implementation of strict preventative measures including mandatory quadrivalent meningococcal vaccination and antibiotic chemoprophylaxis for pilgrims from the African meningitis belt has prevented pilgrimage-associated meningococcal outbreaks since 2001. However, the fluid epidemiology of the disease and the possibility of outbreaks caused by serogroups not covered by the vaccine or emerging hyper-virulent strains, mean that the disease remains a serious public health threat during these events. Continuous surveillance of carriage state and the epidemiology of the disease in the Kingdom and globally and the introduction of preventative measures that provide broad and long-lasting immunity and impact carriage are warranted.

Authors+Show Affiliations

The Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine, Public Health Directorate, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address: saber.yezli@gmail.com.Public Health Directorate, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Public Health Directorate, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Makkah Regional Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.The Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine, Public Health Directorate, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27062987

Citation

Yezli, Saber, et al. "Meningococcal Disease During the Hajj and Umrah Mass Gatherings." International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, vol. 47, 2016, pp. 60-4.
Yezli S, Assiri AM, Alhakeem RF, et al. Meningococcal disease during the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings. Int J Infect Dis. 2016;47:60-4.
Yezli, S., Assiri, A. M., Alhakeem, R. F., Turkistani, A. M., & Alotaibi, B. (2016). Meningococcal disease during the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings. International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, 47, 60-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2016.04.007
Yezli S, et al. Meningococcal Disease During the Hajj and Umrah Mass Gatherings. Int J Infect Dis. 2016;47:60-4. PubMed PMID: 27062987.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Meningococcal disease during the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings. AU - Yezli,Saber, AU - Assiri,Abdullah M, AU - Alhakeem,Rafat F, AU - Turkistani,Abdulhafiz M, AU - Alotaibi,Badriah, Y1 - 2016/04/07/ PY - 2015/11/17/received PY - 2016/03/17/revised PY - 2016/04/03/accepted PY - 2016/4/12/entrez PY - 2016/4/12/pubmed PY - 2017/2/7/medline KW - Hajj KW - Mass gathering KW - Meningitis KW - Meningococcal disease KW - Outbreak KW - Umrah SP - 60 EP - 4 JF - International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases JO - Int J Infect Dis VL - 47 N2 - The Hajj and Umrah religious mass gatherings hosted by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia can facilitate the transmission of infectious diseases. The pilgrimages have been associated with a number of local and international outbreaks of meningococcal disease. These include serogroup A disease outbreaks in 1987 and throughout the 1990s and two international serogroup W135 outbreaks in 2000 and 2001. The implementation of strict preventative measures including mandatory quadrivalent meningococcal vaccination and antibiotic chemoprophylaxis for pilgrims from the African meningitis belt has prevented pilgrimage-associated meningococcal outbreaks since 2001. However, the fluid epidemiology of the disease and the possibility of outbreaks caused by serogroups not covered by the vaccine or emerging hyper-virulent strains, mean that the disease remains a serious public health threat during these events. Continuous surveillance of carriage state and the epidemiology of the disease in the Kingdom and globally and the introduction of preventative measures that provide broad and long-lasting immunity and impact carriage are warranted. SN - 1878-3511 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27062987/Meningococcal_disease_during_the_Hajj_and_Umrah_mass_gatherings_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1201-9712(16)31020-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -