Analysis of hepatitis B vaccination behavior and vaccination willingness among migrant workers from rural China based on protection motivation theory.Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2016 05 03; 12(5):1155-63.HV
With China's accelerating urbanization, migrant workers comprise up to 40% of the urban population of China's largest cities. More mobile than non-migrant urban dwellers, migrants are more likely to contract and spread hepatitis B (HB) than non-migrants. Due to the mandatory system of household registration (hukou), migrants are less likely to be covered by national HB immunization programs and also to have more limited access to public health services where they work than non-migrants. Migrants form a significant sub-group in all Chinese cities posing unique public policy vaccination challenges.
Using protection motivation theory (PMT), we developed and measured HB cognitive variables and analyze the factors affecting HB vaccination behavior and willingness to vaccinate by migrant workers. We propose public policy interventions to increase HB vaccination rates of migrant workers.
We developed a questionnaire to collect information on the HB vaccination characteristics of 1684 respondents from 6 provinces and Beijing. Exploratory factor analysis was used to create PMT variables and a binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the factors affecting migrant workers' HB vaccination behavior and willingness to vaccinate.
Vulnerability and response-efficacy were significant PMT cognition factors determining HB vaccination behavior. The HB vaccination rate for migrants decreased with increasing age and was smaller for the primary education than the high education group. The vaccination rate of the medical insurance group was significantly greater than the non-insured group, and the vaccination probability was significantly higher for the self-rated good health compared to the self-rated poor health group. Geographical birth location mattered: the vaccination rate for Beijing city and Ningxia province migrants were higher than for Hebei province and the vaccination rate was lower for migrants born far from health facilities compared to those located middle-near distances from health facilities. We also studied vaccination willingness for the unvaccinated group. For this group, vulnerability and self-efficacy cognition factors were significant factors determining HB vaccination willingness. The probability of willingness to vaccinate for the 46+ age group was significantly smaller than the 16-25 age group and the willingness to vaccinate was lower in Jiangsu and Hainan province than in Hebei province.
Increased knowledge of HB cognition is an effective way for improving HB vaccination behavior and HB vaccination willingness of migrant workers. We also found that health intervention policies should focus on older migrants (age 46+), without medical insurance, with poorer self-reported health status and poor health services accessibility.