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Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b carriage in Chinese children aged 12-18 months in Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study.
BMC Infect Dis. 2016 Apr 14; 16:149.BI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) are leading causes of childhood pneumonia and meningitis and are major contributors to worldwide mortality in children younger than 5 years of age. Asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcus and Hib was determined for healthy children in Shanghai in 2009.

METHODS

Children from 5 immunization clinics were enrolled in this study. Specimens from the nasopharynx were collected and cultured in Columbia and chocolate agar to identify pneumococcal and Hib carriage. Pneumococcal specimens were serotyped with the Neufeld test, and antibiotic resistance for pneumococcal and Hib specimens used the E-test method. Significance of risk factors for carriage was assessed through chi-square tests.

RESULTS

Among 614 children, 16.6% had pneumococcal carriage and 8.0% Hib carriage. The predominant serotype of pneumococcus that was isolated was 19 F (52.9%); serotype coverage was 68.6% for both 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and PCV-10, and 82.3% for PCV-13. Household residency and father's education were both significantly related to pneumococcal and Hib carriage. The majority of S. pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to most antimicrobials but there were high levels of resistance to azithromycin (51.0 %) and erythromycin (51.0%). Haemophilus influenzae isolates were sensitive to almost all antimicrobials tested although 12.2% of isolates were resistant to ampicillin.

CONCLUSIONS

The pneumococcal and Hib vaccines require payment, and the children with the highest burden of disease may not be receiving these vaccines. Moreover, the presence of high antibiotic susceptibility towards pneumococcus, and to a lesser extent towards Hib, underscores the need for preventive protection against these diseases. Public funding of pneumococcal and Hib vaccines would be one mechanism to increase uptake of these vaccines.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Shanghai Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1380 Zhongshan West Road, Shanghai, 200336, China.Shanghai Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1380 Zhongshan West Road, Shanghai, 200336, China.Shanghai Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1380 Zhongshan West Road, Shanghai, 200336, China.Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, SPH II, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, SPH II, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.Shanghai Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1380 Zhongshan West Road, Shanghai, 200336, China.Shanghai Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1380 Zhongshan West Road, Shanghai, 200336, China.Shanghai Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1380 Zhongshan West Road, Shanghai, 200336, China.Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, SPH II, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA. mboulton@umich.edu.Shanghai Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1380 Zhongshan West Road, Shanghai, 200336, China. yuanzhengan@scdc.sh.cn.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27080523

Citation

Hu, Jiayu, et al. "Streptococcus Pneumoniae and Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Carriage in Chinese Children Aged 12-18 Months in Shanghai, China: a Cross-sectional Study." BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 16, 2016, p. 149.
Hu J, Sun X, Huang Z, et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b carriage in Chinese children aged 12-18 months in Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16:149.
Hu, J., Sun, X., Huang, Z., Wagner, A. L., Carlson, B., Yang, J., Tang, S., Li, Y., Boulton, M. L., & Yuan, Z. (2016). Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b carriage in Chinese children aged 12-18 months in Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 16, 149. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-016-1485-3
Hu J, et al. Streptococcus Pneumoniae and Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Carriage in Chinese Children Aged 12-18 Months in Shanghai, China: a Cross-sectional Study. BMC Infect Dis. 2016 Apr 14;16:149. PubMed PMID: 27080523.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b carriage in Chinese children aged 12-18 months in Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study. AU - Hu,Jiayu, AU - Sun,Xiaodong, AU - Huang,Zhuoying, AU - Wagner,Abram L, AU - Carlson,Bradley, AU - Yang,Jianping, AU - Tang,Suwen, AU - Li,Yunyi, AU - Boulton,Matthew L, AU - Yuan,Zhengan, Y1 - 2016/04/14/ PY - 2015/09/07/received PY - 2016/03/24/accepted PY - 2016/4/16/entrez PY - 2016/4/16/pubmed PY - 2016/10/27/medline KW - Antimicrobial susceptibility KW - China KW - Haemophilus influenzae type b KW - Seroprevalence KW - Streptococcus pneumoniae SP - 149 EP - 149 JF - BMC infectious diseases JO - BMC Infect Dis VL - 16 N2 - BACKGROUND: The bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) are leading causes of childhood pneumonia and meningitis and are major contributors to worldwide mortality in children younger than 5 years of age. Asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcus and Hib was determined for healthy children in Shanghai in 2009. METHODS: Children from 5 immunization clinics were enrolled in this study. Specimens from the nasopharynx were collected and cultured in Columbia and chocolate agar to identify pneumococcal and Hib carriage. Pneumococcal specimens were serotyped with the Neufeld test, and antibiotic resistance for pneumococcal and Hib specimens used the E-test method. Significance of risk factors for carriage was assessed through chi-square tests. RESULTS: Among 614 children, 16.6% had pneumococcal carriage and 8.0% Hib carriage. The predominant serotype of pneumococcus that was isolated was 19 F (52.9%); serotype coverage was 68.6% for both 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and PCV-10, and 82.3% for PCV-13. Household residency and father's education were both significantly related to pneumococcal and Hib carriage. The majority of S. pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to most antimicrobials but there were high levels of resistance to azithromycin (51.0 %) and erythromycin (51.0%). Haemophilus influenzae isolates were sensitive to almost all antimicrobials tested although 12.2% of isolates were resistant to ampicillin. CONCLUSIONS: The pneumococcal and Hib vaccines require payment, and the children with the highest burden of disease may not be receiving these vaccines. Moreover, the presence of high antibiotic susceptibility towards pneumococcus, and to a lesser extent towards Hib, underscores the need for preventive protection against these diseases. Public funding of pneumococcal and Hib vaccines would be one mechanism to increase uptake of these vaccines. SN - 1471-2334 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27080523/Streptococcus_pneumoniae_and_Haemophilus_influenzae_type_b_carriage_in_Chinese_children_aged_12_18_months_in_Shanghai_China:_a_cross_sectional_study_ L2 - https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-016-1485-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -