Downregulation of RSK2 influences the biological activities of human osteosarcoma cells through inactivating AKT/mTOR signaling pathways.Int J Oncol 2016; 48(6):2508-20IJ
RSK2 (90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase) is a downstream effector of the Ras/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) signaling pathway that has major functions in cell biological activities, including regulating nuclear signaling, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell growth, protein synthesis, cell migration and cell survival, and is expressed in most types of human malignant tumors, including lung cancer, prostate and breast tumors, skin cancer and osteosarcomas (OS). RSK2 was found to be essential for osteosarcoma formation. To investigate whether RSK2 is expressed at high levels in human osteosarcome tissues and whether its expression is correlated with the aggressive biological behavior of osteosarcoma cell line (OCLs), we assessed the association between RSK2 expression and OS cell progression, as well as the effects of RSK2 inhibition on the biological activities of osteosarcoma cells. We performed immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression of RSK2 in specimens from 30 humans with osteosarcoma, and 15 normal tissues. RSK2 gene expression levels in 30 specimens with osteosarcoma were significantly higher than those of normal tissues. We performed RNA interference on three OCLs to evaluate cell apoptosis, cell growth, cell proliferation, cell motility, chemosensitivity and oncogenicity. After transfection with RSK2 shRNA, increased cell apoptosis, cell growth inhibition, cell cycle progression, weaker cell proliferation, cell migration and weaker tumor formation were observed in all OCLs. These results suggested that RSK2 expression may mediate the biological activities of OS cells and RSK2 may be an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of osteosarcomas. The AKT/mTOR, MAPK/ERK/c-Fos and Bcl2/Bax pathways were analysed to clarify the mechanisms involved.