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Sorption of structurally different ionized pharmaceutical and illicit drugs to a mixed-mode coated microsampler.
J Chromatogr A. 2016 May 20; 1447:1-8.JC

Abstract

The mixed-mode (C18/strong cation exchange-SCX) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber has recently been shown to have increased sensitivity for ionic compounds compared to more conventional sampler coatings such as polyacrylate and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). However, data for structurally diverse compounds to this (prototype) sampler coating are too limited to define its structural limitations. We determined C18/SCX fiber partitioning coefficients of nineteen cationic structures without hydrogen bonding capacity besides the charged group, stretching over a wide hydrophobicity range (including amphetamine, amitriptyline, promazine, chlorpromazine, triflupromazine, difenzoquat), and eight basic pharmaceutical and illicit drugs (pKa>8.86) with additional hydrogen bonding moieties (MDMA, atenolol, alprenolol, metoprolol, morphine, nicotine, tramadol, verapamil). In addition, sorption data for three neutral benzodiazepines (diazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam) and the anionic NSAID diclofenac were collected to determine the efficiency to sample non-basic drugs. All tested compounds showed nonlinear isotherms above 1mmol/L coating, and linear isotherms below 1mmol/L. The affinity for C18/SCX-SPME for tested organic cations without Hbond capacities increased with longer alkyl chains, ranging from logarithmic fiber-water distribution coefficients (log Dfw) of 1.8 (benzylamine) to 5.8 (triflupromazine). Amines smaller than benzylamine may thus have limited detection levels, while cationic surfactants with alkyl chain lengths >12 carbon atoms may sorb too strong to the C18/SCX sampler which hampers calibration of the fiber-water relationship in the linear range. The log Dfw for these simple cation structures closely correlates with the octanol-water partition coefficient of the neutral form (Kow,N), and decreases with increased branching and presence of multiple aromatic rings. Oxygen moieties in organic cations decreased the affinity for C18/SCX-SPME. Log Dfw values of neutral benzodiazepines were an order of magnitude higher than their log Kow,N. Results for anionic diclofenac species (logKow,N 4.5, pKa 4.0, log Dfw 2.9) indicate that the C18-SCX fiber might also be useful for sampling of organic anions. This data supports our theory that C18-based coatings are able to sorb ionized compounds through adsorption and demonstrates the applicability of C18-based SPME in the measurement of freely dissolved concentrations of a wide range of ionizable compounds.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, PO Box 80177, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: H.Peltenburg@uu.nl.Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, PO Box 80177, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands.Netherlands Forensic Institute, PO Box 24044, 2490 AA The Hague, The Netherlands.Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, PO Box 80177, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands.Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, PO Box 80177, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27083257

Citation

Peltenburg, Hester, et al. "Sorption of Structurally Different Ionized Pharmaceutical and Illicit Drugs to a Mixed-mode Coated Microsampler." Journal of Chromatography. A, vol. 1447, 2016, pp. 1-8.
Peltenburg H, Timmer N, Bosman IJ, et al. Sorption of structurally different ionized pharmaceutical and illicit drugs to a mixed-mode coated microsampler. J Chromatogr A. 2016;1447:1-8.
Peltenburg, H., Timmer, N., Bosman, I. J., Hermens, J. L., & Droge, S. T. (2016). Sorption of structurally different ionized pharmaceutical and illicit drugs to a mixed-mode coated microsampler. Journal of Chromatography. A, 1447, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2016.04.017
Peltenburg H, et al. Sorption of Structurally Different Ionized Pharmaceutical and Illicit Drugs to a Mixed-mode Coated Microsampler. J Chromatogr A. 2016 May 20;1447:1-8. PubMed PMID: 27083257.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Sorption of structurally different ionized pharmaceutical and illicit drugs to a mixed-mode coated microsampler. AU - Peltenburg,Hester, AU - Timmer,Niels, AU - Bosman,Ingrid J, AU - Hermens,Joop L M, AU - Droge,Steven T J, Y1 - 2016/04/11/ PY - 2016/01/07/received PY - 2016/04/05/revised PY - 2016/04/07/accepted PY - 2016/4/17/entrez PY - 2016/4/17/pubmed PY - 2016/12/15/medline KW - C18/SCX KW - Cation exchange KW - Cationic compounds KW - Mixed-mode fiber KW - Solid-phase microextraction SP - 1 EP - 8 JF - Journal of chromatography. A JO - J Chromatogr A VL - 1447 N2 - The mixed-mode (C18/strong cation exchange-SCX) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber has recently been shown to have increased sensitivity for ionic compounds compared to more conventional sampler coatings such as polyacrylate and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). However, data for structurally diverse compounds to this (prototype) sampler coating are too limited to define its structural limitations. We determined C18/SCX fiber partitioning coefficients of nineteen cationic structures without hydrogen bonding capacity besides the charged group, stretching over a wide hydrophobicity range (including amphetamine, amitriptyline, promazine, chlorpromazine, triflupromazine, difenzoquat), and eight basic pharmaceutical and illicit drugs (pKa>8.86) with additional hydrogen bonding moieties (MDMA, atenolol, alprenolol, metoprolol, morphine, nicotine, tramadol, verapamil). In addition, sorption data for three neutral benzodiazepines (diazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam) and the anionic NSAID diclofenac were collected to determine the efficiency to sample non-basic drugs. All tested compounds showed nonlinear isotherms above 1mmol/L coating, and linear isotherms below 1mmol/L. The affinity for C18/SCX-SPME for tested organic cations without Hbond capacities increased with longer alkyl chains, ranging from logarithmic fiber-water distribution coefficients (log Dfw) of 1.8 (benzylamine) to 5.8 (triflupromazine). Amines smaller than benzylamine may thus have limited detection levels, while cationic surfactants with alkyl chain lengths >12 carbon atoms may sorb too strong to the C18/SCX sampler which hampers calibration of the fiber-water relationship in the linear range. The log Dfw for these simple cation structures closely correlates with the octanol-water partition coefficient of the neutral form (Kow,N), and decreases with increased branching and presence of multiple aromatic rings. Oxygen moieties in organic cations decreased the affinity for C18/SCX-SPME. Log Dfw values of neutral benzodiazepines were an order of magnitude higher than their log Kow,N. Results for anionic diclofenac species (logKow,N 4.5, pKa 4.0, log Dfw 2.9) indicate that the C18-SCX fiber might also be useful for sampling of organic anions. This data supports our theory that C18-based coatings are able to sorb ionized compounds through adsorption and demonstrates the applicability of C18-based SPME in the measurement of freely dissolved concentrations of a wide range of ionizable compounds. SN - 1873-3778 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27083257/Sorption_of_structurally_different_ionized_pharmaceutical_and_illicit_drugs_to_a_mixed_mode_coated_microsampler_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0021-9673(16)30423-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -