Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Update on the pharmacotherapy of cerebellar and central vestibular disorders.
J Neurol. 2016 Apr; 263 Suppl 1:S24-9.JN

Abstract

An overview of the current pharmacotherapy of central vestibular syndromes and the most common forms of central nystagmus as well as cerebellar disorders is given. 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) is recommended for the treatment of downbeat nystagmus, a frequent form of acquired persisting fixation nystagmus, and upbeat nystagmus. Animal studies showed that this non-selective blocker of voltage-gated potassium channels increases Purkinje cell excitability and normalizes the irregular firing rate, so that the inhibitory influence of the cerebellar cortex on vestibular and deep cerebellar nuclei is restored. The efficacy of 4-AP in episodic ataxia type 2, which is most often caused by mutations of the PQ-calcium channel, was demonstrated in a randomized controlled trial. It was also shown in an animal model (the tottering mouse) of episodic ataxia type 2. In a case series, chlorzoxazone, a non-selective activator of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, was shown to reduce the DBN. The efficacy of acetyl-DL-leucine as a potential new symptomatic treatment for cerebellar diseases has been demonstrated in three case series. The ongoing randomized controlled trials on episodic ataxia type 2 (sustained-release form of 4-aminopyridine vs. acetazolamide vs. placebo; EAT2TREAT), vestibular migraine with metoprolol (PROVEMIG-trial), cerebellar gait disorders (sustained-release form of 4-aminopyridine vs. placebo; FACEG) and cerebellar ataxia (acetyl-DL-leucine vs. placebo; ALCAT) will provide new insights into the pharmacotherapy of cerebellar and central vestibular disorders.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Cognitive and Restorative Neurology, Department of Neurology, University Hospital Bern, Freiburgstrasse 18, 3010, Bern, Switzerland. roger.kalla@insel.ch.Department of Neurology and German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, University Hospital Munich, Campus Grosshadern, Munich, Germany.Department of Neurology and German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, University Hospital Munich, Campus Grosshadern, Munich, Germany.Department of Neurology and German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, University Hospital Munich, Campus Grosshadern, Munich, Germany.Division of Cognitive and Restorative Neurology, Department of Neurology, University Hospital Bern, Freiburgstrasse 18, 3010, Bern, Switzerland.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27083881

Citation

Kalla, Roger, et al. "Update On the Pharmacotherapy of Cerebellar and Central Vestibular Disorders." Journal of Neurology, vol. 263 Suppl 1, 2016, pp. S24-9.
Kalla R, Teufel J, Feil K, et al. Update on the pharmacotherapy of cerebellar and central vestibular disorders. J Neurol. 2016;263 Suppl 1:S24-9.
Kalla, R., Teufel, J., Feil, K., Muth, C., & Strupp, M. (2016). Update on the pharmacotherapy of cerebellar and central vestibular disorders. Journal of Neurology, 263 Suppl 1, S24-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-015-7987-x
Kalla R, et al. Update On the Pharmacotherapy of Cerebellar and Central Vestibular Disorders. J Neurol. 2016;263 Suppl 1:S24-9. PubMed PMID: 27083881.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Update on the pharmacotherapy of cerebellar and central vestibular disorders. AU - Kalla,Roger, AU - Teufel,Julian, AU - Feil,Katharina, AU - Muth,Caroline, AU - Strupp,Michael, Y1 - 2016/04/15/ PY - 2015/07/17/received PY - 2015/11/29/accepted PY - 2015/11/20/revised PY - 2016/4/17/entrez PY - 2016/4/17/pubmed PY - 2017/1/7/medline KW - Aminopyridines KW - Central vestibular disorders KW - Cerebellar ataxia KW - Downbeat nystagmus KW - Episodic ataxia type 2 KW - Vestibular migraine SP - S24 EP - 9 JF - Journal of neurology JO - J Neurol VL - 263 Suppl 1 N2 - An overview of the current pharmacotherapy of central vestibular syndromes and the most common forms of central nystagmus as well as cerebellar disorders is given. 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) is recommended for the treatment of downbeat nystagmus, a frequent form of acquired persisting fixation nystagmus, and upbeat nystagmus. Animal studies showed that this non-selective blocker of voltage-gated potassium channels increases Purkinje cell excitability and normalizes the irregular firing rate, so that the inhibitory influence of the cerebellar cortex on vestibular and deep cerebellar nuclei is restored. The efficacy of 4-AP in episodic ataxia type 2, which is most often caused by mutations of the PQ-calcium channel, was demonstrated in a randomized controlled trial. It was also shown in an animal model (the tottering mouse) of episodic ataxia type 2. In a case series, chlorzoxazone, a non-selective activator of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, was shown to reduce the DBN. The efficacy of acetyl-DL-leucine as a potential new symptomatic treatment for cerebellar diseases has been demonstrated in three case series. The ongoing randomized controlled trials on episodic ataxia type 2 (sustained-release form of 4-aminopyridine vs. acetazolamide vs. placebo; EAT2TREAT), vestibular migraine with metoprolol (PROVEMIG-trial), cerebellar gait disorders (sustained-release form of 4-aminopyridine vs. placebo; FACEG) and cerebellar ataxia (acetyl-DL-leucine vs. placebo; ALCAT) will provide new insights into the pharmacotherapy of cerebellar and central vestibular disorders. SN - 1432-1459 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27083881/Update_on_the_pharmacotherapy_of_cerebellar_and_central_vestibular_disorders_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-015-7987-x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -