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Dietary Supplement Use and Nutrient Intake among Children in South Korea.
J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016 08; 116(8):1316-22.JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The use of dietary supplements (DS) is common in South Korea and other countries. However, few studies have been conducted in South Korea on their use, especially in early childhood.

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to compare total nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy among DS users and nonusers in Korean children.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional study.

PARTICIPANTS/SETTING

Data of participants aged 1 to 8 from the 4th (2007-2009) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The participants were divided into two groups based on use of dietary supplements (DS users, n=766; nonusers, n=1,648).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Dietary intake measured by 24-hour recall and DS information from questionnaires was collected with the assistance of a caregiver. Nutrient intake was adjusted within and between person variations, using C-SIDE (Software for Intake Distribution Estimation, version 1.02, 1996; available from the Center for Survey Statistics and Methodology, Iowa State University) software to estimate usual intake. Total nutrient intake was calculated as the sum of nutrient intake from food and DS.

STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED

Nutrient intake between groups was compared by using a multivariate regression model adjusted for demographic characteristics. Adequacy of nutrient intake between the two groups was compared with Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans by using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test, controlling for demographic characteristics.

RESULTS

No significant differences were observed in dietary macronutrients and micronutrients between DS users and nonusers, except for calcium. Total intake (food+DS) of vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, and iron were higher in DS users compared with nonusers. A lower percentage of DS users had total micronutrient intakes below the estimated average requirement compared with nonusers. DS use was associated with intakes of vitamin A and C that were higher than the tolerable upper intake levels.

CONCLUSIONS

DS use in children contributes to adequate micronutrient intake. However, concerns exist about excessive intakes of specific nutrients, especially among children who consume more than the suggested dosage.

Authors

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27083986

Citation

Kang, Minji, et al. "Dietary Supplement Use and Nutrient Intake Among Children in South Korea." Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 116, no. 8, 2016, pp. 1316-22.
Kang M, Kim DW, Jung HJ, et al. Dietary Supplement Use and Nutrient Intake among Children in South Korea. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016;116(8):1316-22.
Kang, M., Kim, D. W., Jung, H. J., Shim, J. E., Song, Y., Kim, K., & Paik, H. Y. (2016). Dietary Supplement Use and Nutrient Intake among Children in South Korea. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 116(8), 1316-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2016.02.020
Kang M, et al. Dietary Supplement Use and Nutrient Intake Among Children in South Korea. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016;116(8):1316-22. PubMed PMID: 27083986.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary Supplement Use and Nutrient Intake among Children in South Korea. AU - Kang,Minji, AU - Kim,Dong Woo, AU - Jung,Hyun Ju, AU - Shim,Jae Eun, AU - Song,YoonJu, AU - Kim,Kijoon, AU - Paik,Hee-Young, Y1 - 2016/04/12/ PY - 2015/06/05/received PY - 2016/02/18/accepted PY - 2016/4/17/entrez PY - 2016/4/17/pubmed PY - 2017/7/4/medline KW - Children KW - Dietary supplement KW - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) KW - Nutritional assessment SP - 1316 EP - 22 JF - Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics JO - J Acad Nutr Diet VL - 116 IS - 8 N2 - BACKGROUND: The use of dietary supplements (DS) is common in South Korea and other countries. However, few studies have been conducted in South Korea on their use, especially in early childhood. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare total nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy among DS users and nonusers in Korean children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Data of participants aged 1 to 8 from the 4th (2007-2009) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The participants were divided into two groups based on use of dietary supplements (DS users, n=766; nonusers, n=1,648). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dietary intake measured by 24-hour recall and DS information from questionnaires was collected with the assistance of a caregiver. Nutrient intake was adjusted within and between person variations, using C-SIDE (Software for Intake Distribution Estimation, version 1.02, 1996; available from the Center for Survey Statistics and Methodology, Iowa State University) software to estimate usual intake. Total nutrient intake was calculated as the sum of nutrient intake from food and DS. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Nutrient intake between groups was compared by using a multivariate regression model adjusted for demographic characteristics. Adequacy of nutrient intake between the two groups was compared with Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans by using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test, controlling for demographic characteristics. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in dietary macronutrients and micronutrients between DS users and nonusers, except for calcium. Total intake (food+DS) of vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, and iron were higher in DS users compared with nonusers. A lower percentage of DS users had total micronutrient intakes below the estimated average requirement compared with nonusers. DS use was associated with intakes of vitamin A and C that were higher than the tolerable upper intake levels. CONCLUSIONS: DS use in children contributes to adequate micronutrient intake. However, concerns exist about excessive intakes of specific nutrients, especially among children who consume more than the suggested dosage. SN - 2212-2672 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27083986/Dietary_Supplement_Use_and_Nutrient_Intake_among_Children_in_South_Korea_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2212-2672(16)00228-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -