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Exploring the Symbiodinium rare biosphere provides evidence for symbiont switching in reef-building corals.
ISME J. 2016 11; 10(11):2693-2701.IJ

Abstract

Reef-building corals possess a range of acclimatisation and adaptation mechanisms to respond to seawater temperature increases. In some corals, thermal tolerance increases through community composition changes of their dinoflagellate endosymbionts (Symbiodinium spp.), but this mechanism is believed to be limited to the Symbiodinium types already present in the coral tissue acquired during early life stages. Compelling evidence for symbiont switching, that is, the acquisition of novel Symbiodinium types from the environment, by adult coral colonies, is currently lacking. Using deep sequencing analysis of Symbiodinium rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) PCR amplicons from two pocilloporid coral species, we show evidence consistent with de novo acquisition of Symbiodinium types from the environment by adult corals following two consecutive bleaching events. Most of these newly detected symbionts remained in the rare biosphere (background types occurring below 1% relative abundance), but one novel type reached a relative abundance of ~33%. Two de novo acquired Symbiodinium types belong to the thermally resistant clade D, suggesting that this switching may have been driven by consecutive thermal bleaching events. Our results are particularly important given the maternal mode of Symbiodinium transmission in the study species, which generally results in high symbiont specificity. These findings will cause a paradigm shift in our understanding of coral-Symbiodinium symbiosis flexibility and mechanisms of environmental acclimatisation in corals.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Marine Science Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, Australia. Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia.National Marine Science Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, Australia. Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia.Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia.Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia.Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawai'i, Kaneohe, HI, USA.Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville MC, Queensland, Australia.Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville MC, Queensland, Australia. School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27093048

Citation

Boulotte, Nadine M., et al. "Exploring the Symbiodinium Rare Biosphere Provides Evidence for Symbiont Switching in Reef-building Corals." The ISME Journal, vol. 10, no. 11, 2016, pp. 2693-2701.
Boulotte NM, Dalton SJ, Carroll AG, et al. Exploring the Symbiodinium rare biosphere provides evidence for symbiont switching in reef-building corals. ISME J. 2016;10(11):2693-2701.
Boulotte, N. M., Dalton, S. J., Carroll, A. G., Harrison, P. L., Putnam, H. M., Peplow, L. M., & van Oppen, M. J. (2016). Exploring the Symbiodinium rare biosphere provides evidence for symbiont switching in reef-building corals. The ISME Journal, 10(11), 2693-2701. https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2016.54
Boulotte NM, et al. Exploring the Symbiodinium Rare Biosphere Provides Evidence for Symbiont Switching in Reef-building Corals. ISME J. 2016;10(11):2693-2701. PubMed PMID: 27093048.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Exploring the Symbiodinium rare biosphere provides evidence for symbiont switching in reef-building corals. AU - Boulotte,Nadine M, AU - Dalton,Steven J, AU - Carroll,Andrew G, AU - Harrison,Peter L, AU - Putnam,Hollie M, AU - Peplow,Lesa M, AU - van Oppen,Madeleine Jh, Y1 - 2016/04/19/ PY - 2015/09/27/received PY - 2016/02/12/revised PY - 2016/02/25/accepted PY - 2016/10/26/pubmed PY - 2017/9/19/medline PY - 2016/4/20/entrez SP - 2693 EP - 2701 JF - The ISME journal JO - ISME J VL - 10 IS - 11 N2 - Reef-building corals possess a range of acclimatisation and adaptation mechanisms to respond to seawater temperature increases. In some corals, thermal tolerance increases through community composition changes of their dinoflagellate endosymbionts (Symbiodinium spp.), but this mechanism is believed to be limited to the Symbiodinium types already present in the coral tissue acquired during early life stages. Compelling evidence for symbiont switching, that is, the acquisition of novel Symbiodinium types from the environment, by adult coral colonies, is currently lacking. Using deep sequencing analysis of Symbiodinium rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) PCR amplicons from two pocilloporid coral species, we show evidence consistent with de novo acquisition of Symbiodinium types from the environment by adult corals following two consecutive bleaching events. Most of these newly detected symbionts remained in the rare biosphere (background types occurring below 1% relative abundance), but one novel type reached a relative abundance of ~33%. Two de novo acquired Symbiodinium types belong to the thermally resistant clade D, suggesting that this switching may have been driven by consecutive thermal bleaching events. Our results are particularly important given the maternal mode of Symbiodinium transmission in the study species, which generally results in high symbiont specificity. These findings will cause a paradigm shift in our understanding of coral-Symbiodinium symbiosis flexibility and mechanisms of environmental acclimatisation in corals. SN - 1751-7370 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27093048/Exploring_the_Symbiodinium_rare_biosphere_provides_evidence_for_symbiont_switching_in_reef_building_corals_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2016.54 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -