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Energy and nutrient intakes of young children in the UK: findings from the Gemini twin cohort.
Br J Nutr. 2016 May 28; 115(10):1843-50.BJ

Abstract

Data on the diets of young children in the UK are limited, despite growing evidence of the importance of early diet for long-term health. We used the largest contemporary dietary data set to describe the intake of 21-month-old children in the UK. Parents of 2336 children aged 21 months from the UK Gemini twin cohort completed 3-d diet diaries in 2008/2009. Family background information was obtained from questionnaires completed 8 months after birth. Mean total daily intakes of energy, macronutrients (g and %E) and micronutrients from food and beverages, including and excluding supplements, were derived. Comparisons with UK dietary reference values (DRV) were made using t tests and general linear regression models, respectively. Daily energy intake (kJ), protein (g) and most micronutrients exceeded DRV, except for vitamin D and Fe, where 96 or 84 % and 70 or 6 % of children did not achieve the reference nutrient intake or lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI), respectively, even with supplementation. These findings reflect similar observations in the smaller sample of children aged 18-36 months in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. At a population level, young children in the UK are exceeding recommended daily intakes of energy and protein, potentially increasing their risk of obesity. The majority of children are not meeting the LRNI for vitamin D, largely reflecting inadequate use of the supplements recommended at this age. Parents may need more guidance on how to achieve healthy energy and nutrient intakes for young children.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1Department of Epidemiology and Public Health,Health Behaviour Research Centre,University College London,Gower Street,London WC1E 6BT,UK.1Department of Epidemiology and Public Health,Health Behaviour Research Centre,University College London,Gower Street,London WC1E 6BT,UK.2Department for Health Evidence & Department of Primary and Community Care,Radboud University Medical Center,PO Box 9101,6500 HB Nijmegen,The Netherlands.3School for Policy Studies,Centre for Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences,University of Bristol,8 Priory Rd,Bristol BS8 1TZ,UK.4Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences,University of Oxford,Radcliffe Observatory Quarter,Woodstock Road,Oxford OX2 6GG,UK.1Department of Epidemiology and Public Health,Health Behaviour Research Centre,University College London,Gower Street,London WC1E 6BT,UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Twin Study

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27093345

Citation

Syrad, H, et al. "Energy and Nutrient Intakes of Young Children in the UK: Findings From the Gemini Twin Cohort." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 115, no. 10, 2016, pp. 1843-50.
Syrad H, Llewellyn CH, van Jaarsveld CH, et al. Energy and nutrient intakes of young children in the UK: findings from the Gemini twin cohort. Br J Nutr. 2016;115(10):1843-50.
Syrad, H., Llewellyn, C. H., van Jaarsveld, C. H., Johnson, L., Jebb, S. A., & Wardle, J. (2016). Energy and nutrient intakes of young children in the UK: findings from the Gemini twin cohort. The British Journal of Nutrition, 115(10), 1843-50. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114516000957
Syrad H, et al. Energy and Nutrient Intakes of Young Children in the UK: Findings From the Gemini Twin Cohort. Br J Nutr. 2016 May 28;115(10):1843-50. PubMed PMID: 27093345.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Energy and nutrient intakes of young children in the UK: findings from the Gemini twin cohort. AU - Syrad,H, AU - Llewellyn,C H, AU - van Jaarsveld,C H M, AU - Johnson,L, AU - Jebb,S A, AU - Wardle,J, PY - 2016/4/20/entrez PY - 2016/4/20/pubmed PY - 2016/9/1/medline KW - %E percentage of daily energy intake KW - Children KW - DRV dietary reference value KW - Diets KW - Energy intakes KW - LRNI lower reference nutrient intakes KW - NDNS National Diet and Nutrition Survey KW - Nutrition KW - RNI reference nutrient intake KW - SACN Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition KW - SES socio-economic status SP - 1843 EP - 50 JF - The British journal of nutrition JO - Br J Nutr VL - 115 IS - 10 N2 - Data on the diets of young children in the UK are limited, despite growing evidence of the importance of early diet for long-term health. We used the largest contemporary dietary data set to describe the intake of 21-month-old children in the UK. Parents of 2336 children aged 21 months from the UK Gemini twin cohort completed 3-d diet diaries in 2008/2009. Family background information was obtained from questionnaires completed 8 months after birth. Mean total daily intakes of energy, macronutrients (g and %E) and micronutrients from food and beverages, including and excluding supplements, were derived. Comparisons with UK dietary reference values (DRV) were made using t tests and general linear regression models, respectively. Daily energy intake (kJ), protein (g) and most micronutrients exceeded DRV, except for vitamin D and Fe, where 96 or 84 % and 70 or 6 % of children did not achieve the reference nutrient intake or lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI), respectively, even with supplementation. These findings reflect similar observations in the smaller sample of children aged 18-36 months in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. At a population level, young children in the UK are exceeding recommended daily intakes of energy and protein, potentially increasing their risk of obesity. The majority of children are not meeting the LRNI for vitamin D, largely reflecting inadequate use of the supplements recommended at this age. Parents may need more guidance on how to achieve healthy energy and nutrient intakes for young children. SN - 1475-2662 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27093345/Energy_and_nutrient_intakes_of_young_children_in_the_UK:_findings_from_the_Gemini_twin_cohort_ L2 - http://journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S0007114516000957 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -