[Endemic status of schistosomiasis in People's Republic of China in 2014].Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi. 2015 Dec; 27(6):563-9.ZX
This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China at national level in 2014, and analyzed the data captured from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 81 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis japonica in China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) of Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi had achieved transmission interruption, 4 provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan, Jiangsu and Hubei had achieved transmission control, and Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces were still at infection control until 2014. There were 453 counties (city, district) endemic for schistosomiasis, with 251 million residents, and 30,048 villages endemic for schistosomiasis, with 68 million 507 thousand and 3 hundred residents. Among the 453 endemic counties (city, district), 69.09% (313/453) and 29.80% (135/ 453) endemic counties (city, district) reached the transmission interruption and transmission control respectively while the number of counties (city, district) at the stage of infection control reduced from 34 in 2013 to 5 in 2014 (accounted for 1.10% of the total number of endemic counties, 5/53). Till 2014, 115,614 people were estimated to have schistosomiasis and only 2 acute schistosomiasis cases were reported. In addition, there were 30,880 advanced schistosomiasis cases documented in 2014. In 2014, a total of 9,461,348 individuals received schistosomiasis examinations and 8,270 persons were found stool positives with the reduction rate of 50.96% as compared to that (16,865 cases) in 2013. The Oncomelania hupensis snail survey was performed in 20 123 endemic villages in 2014, and the snails were detected in 5,653 villages, which accounted for 28.09% of total villages, with 13 newly detected villages with snails. The snail survey covered an area of 576,506.37 hm² and snails were found in an area of 364 324.42 hm², including an area of 531.13 hm² detected snails for the first time. No schistosome infected snails were found in 2014. A total of 919,579 head of cattle were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China. In 2014, 494,620 head of cattle received examinations and only 666 were determined as stool positives. Based on the data from the 81 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China, the mean Schistosomajaponicum infection rate was 0.11% and 0.05% in humans and cattle respectively, and no infected snails were detected in 2014. There were 280,855 schistosomiasis cases receiving treatments, with 2,565,555 cases undergoing expanded chemotherapy; there were 798 head of cattle with schistosomiasis receiving treatments, with 408,690 head of cattle undergoing expanded chemotherapy; there was a total 138,923.90 hm² area with snail control by using molluscicides , with actual mollusciciding of 74,538.17 hm²; and there was an environmental modification of 5,331.42 hm². These data demonstrate a decline in the endemic city of schistosomiasis in China in 2014. However, the risk of schistosomiasis transmission remains high in some regions. Further control and effective surveillance should be strengthened to consolidate the achievements and reduce the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in China.