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High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study.
Nutr Res 2016; 36(5):464-77NR

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK; Department of Pediatrics, Nutrition and Metabolic Disorders, Children's Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address: jacob.sobiecki@ceu.ox.ac.uk.Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK. Electronic address: paul.Appleby@ceu.ox.ac.uk.Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK. Electronic address: kathryn.bradbury@ceu.ox.ac.uk.Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK. Electronic address: tim.key@ceu.ox.ac.uk.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27101764

Citation

Sobiecki, Jakub G., et al. "High Compliance With Dietary Recommendations in a Cohort of Meat Eaters, Fish Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans: Results From the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford Study." Nutrition Research (New York, N.Y.), vol. 36, no. 5, 2016, pp. 464-77.
Sobiecki JG, Appleby PN, Bradbury KE, et al. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study. Nutr Res. 2016;36(5):464-77.
Sobiecki, J. G., Appleby, P. N., Bradbury, K. E., & Key, T. J. (2016). High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study. Nutrition Research (New York, N.Y.), 36(5), pp. 464-77. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2015.12.016.
Sobiecki JG, et al. High Compliance With Dietary Recommendations in a Cohort of Meat Eaters, Fish Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans: Results From the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford Study. Nutr Res. 2016;36(5):464-77. PubMed PMID: 27101764.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study. AU - Sobiecki,Jakub G, AU - Appleby,Paul N, AU - Bradbury,Kathryn E, AU - Key,Timothy J, Y1 - 2016/01/06/ PY - 2015/10/15/received PY - 2015/12/16/revised PY - 2015/12/21/accepted PY - 2016/4/23/entrez PY - 2016/4/23/pubmed PY - 2017/1/10/medline KW - Cross-sectional study KW - Nutrients KW - Nutrition assessment KW - Risk assessment KW - Vegan KW - Vegetarian SP - 464 EP - 77 JF - Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) JO - Nutr Res VL - 36 IS - 5 N2 - The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk. SN - 1879-0739 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27101764/High_compliance_with_dietary_recommendations_in_a_cohort_of_meat_eaters_fish_eaters_vegetarians_and_vegans:_results_from_the_European_Prospective_Investigation_into_Cancer_and_Nutrition_Oxford_study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0271-5317(16)00002-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -