Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Effects of Resistance Training Frequency on Measures of Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Sports Med. 2016 Nov; 46(11):1689-1697.SM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

A number of resistance training (RT) program variables can be manipulated to maximize muscular hypertrophy. One variable of primary interest in this regard is RT frequency. Frequency can refer to the number of resistance training sessions performed in a given period of time, as well as to the number of times a specific muscle group is trained over a given period of time.

OBJECTIVE

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effects of resistance training frequency on hypertrophic outcomes.

METHODS

Studies were deemed eligible for inclusion if they met the following criteria: (1) were an experimental trial published in an English-language refereed journal; (2) directly compared different weekly resistance training frequencies in traditional dynamic exercise using coupled concentric and eccentric actions; (3) measured morphologic changes via biopsy, imaging, circumference, and/or densitometry; (4) had a minimum duration of 4 weeks; and (5) used human participants without chronic disease or injury. A total of ten studies were identified that investigated RT frequency in accordance with the criteria outlined.

RESULTS

Analysis using binary frequency as a predictor variable revealed a significant impact of training frequency on hypertrophy effect size (P = 0.002), with higher frequency being associated with a greater effect size than lower frequency (0.49 ± 0.08 vs. 0.30 ± 0.07, respectively). Statistical analyses of studies investigating training session frequency when groups are matched for frequency of training per muscle group could not be carried out and reliable estimates could not be generated due to inadequate sample size.

CONCLUSIONS

When comparing studies that investigated training muscle groups between 1 to 3 days per week on a volume-equated basis, the current body of evidence indicates that frequencies of training twice a week promote superior hypertrophic outcomes to once a week. It can therefore be inferred that the major muscle groups should be trained at least twice a week to maximize muscle growth; whether training a muscle group three times per week is superior to a twice-per-week protocol remains to be determined.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Health Science, Lehman College, Bronx, NY, USA. brad@workout911.com.McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.Weightology, LLC, Issaquah, WA, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27102172

Citation

Schoenfeld, Brad J., et al. "Effects of Resistance Training Frequency On Measures of Muscle Hypertrophy: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), vol. 46, no. 11, 2016, pp. 1689-1697.
Schoenfeld BJ, Ogborn D, Krieger JW. Effects of Resistance Training Frequency on Measures of Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med. 2016;46(11):1689-1697.
Schoenfeld, B. J., Ogborn, D., & Krieger, J. W. (2016). Effects of Resistance Training Frequency on Measures of Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 46(11), 1689-1697. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0543-8
Schoenfeld BJ, Ogborn D, Krieger JW. Effects of Resistance Training Frequency On Measures of Muscle Hypertrophy: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med. 2016;46(11):1689-1697. PubMed PMID: 27102172.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of Resistance Training Frequency on Measures of Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. AU - Schoenfeld,Brad J, AU - Ogborn,Dan, AU - Krieger,James W, PY - 2016/4/23/pubmed PY - 2018/5/4/medline PY - 2016/4/23/entrez SP - 1689 EP - 1697 JF - Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) JO - Sports Med VL - 46 IS - 11 N2 - BACKGROUND: A number of resistance training (RT) program variables can be manipulated to maximize muscular hypertrophy. One variable of primary interest in this regard is RT frequency. Frequency can refer to the number of resistance training sessions performed in a given period of time, as well as to the number of times a specific muscle group is trained over a given period of time. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effects of resistance training frequency on hypertrophic outcomes. METHODS: Studies were deemed eligible for inclusion if they met the following criteria: (1) were an experimental trial published in an English-language refereed journal; (2) directly compared different weekly resistance training frequencies in traditional dynamic exercise using coupled concentric and eccentric actions; (3) measured morphologic changes via biopsy, imaging, circumference, and/or densitometry; (4) had a minimum duration of 4 weeks; and (5) used human participants without chronic disease or injury. A total of ten studies were identified that investigated RT frequency in accordance with the criteria outlined. RESULTS: Analysis using binary frequency as a predictor variable revealed a significant impact of training frequency on hypertrophy effect size (P = 0.002), with higher frequency being associated with a greater effect size than lower frequency (0.49 ± 0.08 vs. 0.30 ± 0.07, respectively). Statistical analyses of studies investigating training session frequency when groups are matched for frequency of training per muscle group could not be carried out and reliable estimates could not be generated due to inadequate sample size. CONCLUSIONS: When comparing studies that investigated training muscle groups between 1 to 3 days per week on a volume-equated basis, the current body of evidence indicates that frequencies of training twice a week promote superior hypertrophic outcomes to once a week. It can therefore be inferred that the major muscle groups should be trained at least twice a week to maximize muscle growth; whether training a muscle group three times per week is superior to a twice-per-week protocol remains to be determined. SN - 1179-2035 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27102172/Effects_of_Resistance_Training_Frequency_on_Measures_of_Muscle_Hypertrophy:_A_Systematic_Review_and_Meta_Analysis_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0543-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -