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Fruit and vegetable intakes, sources and contribution to total diet in very young children (1-4 years): the Irish National Pre-School Nutrition Survey.

Abstract

Although the importance of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intakes in the prevention of chronic diseases is well established, there are limited data on intakes in very young children. This study estimates F&V intakes and sources and the contribution to the total diet using data from the National Pre-School Nutrition Survey, a nationally representative sample (n 500) of Irish children aged 1-4 years. A 4-d weighed food record was used to collect food intake data. Of 1652 food codes consumed, 740 had a fruit/vegetable component. The percentage of edible fruits and/or vegetables in each food code was calculated. Intakes (g/d), sources (g/d) and the contribution of F&V to the weight of the total diet (%) were estimated, split by age. All children consumed F&V. Intakes of total fruits, in particular fruit juice, increased with age. The contribution to total fruit intake was discrete fruits (47-56 % range across age), 100 % fruit juice, smoothies and pureés (32-45 %) as well as fruits in composite dishes (7-13 %). Total vegetable intake comprised of discrete vegetables (48-62 % range across age) and vegetables in composite dishes (38-52 %). F&V contributed on average 20 % (15 % fruit; 5 % vegetables) to the weight of the total diet and was <10 % in sixty-one children (12 %). F&V contributed 50 % of vitamin C, 53 % of carotene, 34 % of dietary fibre and 42 % of non-milk sugar intakes from the total diet. F&V are important components of the diet of Irish pre-school children; however, some aspects of F&V intake patterns could be improved in this age group.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    1School of Food and Nutritional Sciences,University College Cork,Cork,Republic of Ireland.

    ,

    1School of Food and Nutritional Sciences,University College Cork,Cork,Republic of Ireland.

    1School of Food and Nutritional Sciences,University College Cork,Cork,Republic of Ireland.

    Source

    The British journal of nutrition 115:12 2016 06 pg 2196-202

    MeSH

    Beverages
    Child, Preschool
    Diet
    Diet Records
    Dietary Fiber
    Dietary Sucrose
    Energy Intake
    Feeding Behavior
    Female
    Fruit
    Humans
    Infant
    Ireland
    Male
    Nutrition Surveys
    Vegetables
    beta Carotene

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    27102717

    Citation

    O'Connor, Laura, et al. "Fruit and Vegetable Intakes, Sources and Contribution to Total Diet in Very Young Children (1-4 Years): the Irish National Pre-School Nutrition Survey." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 115, no. 12, 2016, pp. 2196-202.
    O'Connor L, Walton J, Flynn A. Fruit and vegetable intakes, sources and contribution to total diet in very young children (1-4 years): the Irish National Pre-School Nutrition Survey. Br J Nutr. 2016;115(12):2196-202.
    O'Connor, L., Walton, J., & Flynn, A. (2016). Fruit and vegetable intakes, sources and contribution to total diet in very young children (1-4 years): the Irish National Pre-School Nutrition Survey. The British Journal of Nutrition, 115(12), pp. 2196-202. doi:10.1017/S0007114516001422.
    O'Connor L, Walton J, Flynn A. Fruit and Vegetable Intakes, Sources and Contribution to Total Diet in Very Young Children (1-4 Years): the Irish National Pre-School Nutrition Survey. Br J Nutr. 2016;115(12):2196-202. PubMed PMID: 27102717.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Fruit and vegetable intakes, sources and contribution to total diet in very young children (1-4 years): the Irish National Pre-School Nutrition Survey. AU - O'Connor,Laura, AU - Walton,Janette, AU - Flynn,Albert, Y1 - 2016/04/22/ PY - 2016/4/23/entrez PY - 2016/4/23/pubmed PY - 2017/5/4/medline KW - Children KW - Composite dishes KW - Dietary intakes KW - Fruits KW - Juices KW - Surveys KW - Vegetables SP - 2196 EP - 202 JF - The British journal of nutrition JO - Br. J. Nutr. VL - 115 IS - 12 N2 - Although the importance of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intakes in the prevention of chronic diseases is well established, there are limited data on intakes in very young children. This study estimates F&V intakes and sources and the contribution to the total diet using data from the National Pre-School Nutrition Survey, a nationally representative sample (n 500) of Irish children aged 1-4 years. A 4-d weighed food record was used to collect food intake data. Of 1652 food codes consumed, 740 had a fruit/vegetable component. The percentage of edible fruits and/or vegetables in each food code was calculated. Intakes (g/d), sources (g/d) and the contribution of F&V to the weight of the total diet (%) were estimated, split by age. All children consumed F&V. Intakes of total fruits, in particular fruit juice, increased with age. The contribution to total fruit intake was discrete fruits (47-56 % range across age), 100 % fruit juice, smoothies and pureés (32-45 %) as well as fruits in composite dishes (7-13 %). Total vegetable intake comprised of discrete vegetables (48-62 % range across age) and vegetables in composite dishes (38-52 %). F&V contributed on average 20 % (15 % fruit; 5 % vegetables) to the weight of the total diet and was <10 % in sixty-one children (12 %). F&V contributed 50 % of vitamin C, 53 % of carotene, 34 % of dietary fibre and 42 % of non-milk sugar intakes from the total diet. F&V are important components of the diet of Irish pre-school children; however, some aspects of F&V intake patterns could be improved in this age group. SN - 1475-2662 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27102717/Fruit_and_vegetable_intakes_sources_and_contribution_to_total_diet_in_very_young_children__1_4_years_:_the_Irish_National_Pre_School_Nutrition_Survey_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0007114516001422/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -