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NOT ALL SINGLE LEG SQUATS ARE EQUAL: A BIOMECHANICAL COMPARISON OF THREE VARIATIONS.
Int J Sports Phys Ther 2016; 11(2):201-11IJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The single leg squat (SLS) is a functional task used by practitioners to evaluate and treat multiple pathologies of the lower extremity. Variations of the SLS may have different neuromuscular and biomechanical demands. The effect of altering the non-stance leg position during the SLS on trunk, pelvic, and lower extremity mechanics has not been reported.

PURPOSE

The purpose of this study was to compare trunk, pelvic, hip, knee, and ankle kinematics and hip, knee, and ankle kinetics of three variations of the SLS using different non-stance leg positions: SLS-Front, SLS-Middle, and SLS-Back.

METHODS

Sixteen healthy women performed the three SLS tasks while data were collected using a motion capture system and force plates. Joint mechanics in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes were compared for the SLS tasks using a separate repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for each variable at two analysis points: peak knee flexion (PKF) and 60 ° of knee flexion (60KF).

RESULTS

Different non-stance leg positions during the SLS resulted in distinct movement patterns and moments at the trunk, pelvis, and lower extremity. At PKF, SLS-Back exhibited the greatest kinematic differences (p < 0.05) from SLS-Front and SLS-Middle with greater ipsilateral trunk flexion, pelvic anterior tilt and drop, hip flexion and adduction, and external rotation as well as less knee flexion and abduction. SLS-Back also showed the greatest kinetic differences (p < 0.05) from SLS-Front and SLS-Middle with greater hip external rotator moment and knee extensor moment as well as less hip extensor moment and knee adductor moment at PKF. At 60KF, the findings were similar except at the knee.

CONCLUSION

The mechanics of the trunk, pelvis, and lower extremity during the SLS were affected by the position of the non-stance leg in healthy females. Practitioners can use these findings to distinguish between SLS variations and to select the appropriate SLS for assessment and rehabilitation.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE

3.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Physical Therapy & Athletic Training, College of Health & Rehabilitation Sciences: Sargent College, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.Nutrition, Exercise, and Health Sciences, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington, USA.Department of Physical Therapy & Athletic Training, College of Health & Rehabilitation Sciences: Sargent College, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27104053

Citation

Khuu, Anne, et al. "NOT ALL SINGLE LEG SQUATS ARE EQUAL: a BIOMECHANICAL COMPARISON of THREE VARIATIONS." International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, vol. 11, no. 2, 2016, pp. 201-11.
Khuu A, Foch E, Lewis CL. NOT ALL SINGLE LEG SQUATS ARE EQUAL: A BIOMECHANICAL COMPARISON OF THREE VARIATIONS. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2016;11(2):201-11.
Khuu, A., Foch, E., & Lewis, C. L. (2016). NOT ALL SINGLE LEG SQUATS ARE EQUAL: A BIOMECHANICAL COMPARISON OF THREE VARIATIONS. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 11(2), pp. 201-11.
Khuu A, Foch E, Lewis CL. NOT ALL SINGLE LEG SQUATS ARE EQUAL: a BIOMECHANICAL COMPARISON of THREE VARIATIONS. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2016;11(2):201-11. PubMed PMID: 27104053.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - NOT ALL SINGLE LEG SQUATS ARE EQUAL: A BIOMECHANICAL COMPARISON OF THREE VARIATIONS. AU - Khuu,Anne, AU - Foch,Eric, AU - Lewis,Cara L, PY - 2016/4/23/entrez PY - 2016/4/23/pubmed PY - 2016/4/23/medline KW - Females KW - kinematics KW - kinetics KW - lower extremity KW - single limb squat SP - 201 EP - 11 JF - International journal of sports physical therapy JO - Int J Sports Phys Ther VL - 11 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: The single leg squat (SLS) is a functional task used by practitioners to evaluate and treat multiple pathologies of the lower extremity. Variations of the SLS may have different neuromuscular and biomechanical demands. The effect of altering the non-stance leg position during the SLS on trunk, pelvic, and lower extremity mechanics has not been reported. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare trunk, pelvic, hip, knee, and ankle kinematics and hip, knee, and ankle kinetics of three variations of the SLS using different non-stance leg positions: SLS-Front, SLS-Middle, and SLS-Back. METHODS: Sixteen healthy women performed the three SLS tasks while data were collected using a motion capture system and force plates. Joint mechanics in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes were compared for the SLS tasks using a separate repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for each variable at two analysis points: peak knee flexion (PKF) and 60 ° of knee flexion (60KF). RESULTS: Different non-stance leg positions during the SLS resulted in distinct movement patterns and moments at the trunk, pelvis, and lower extremity. At PKF, SLS-Back exhibited the greatest kinematic differences (p < 0.05) from SLS-Front and SLS-Middle with greater ipsilateral trunk flexion, pelvic anterior tilt and drop, hip flexion and adduction, and external rotation as well as less knee flexion and abduction. SLS-Back also showed the greatest kinetic differences (p < 0.05) from SLS-Front and SLS-Middle with greater hip external rotator moment and knee extensor moment as well as less hip extensor moment and knee adductor moment at PKF. At 60KF, the findings were similar except at the knee. CONCLUSION: The mechanics of the trunk, pelvis, and lower extremity during the SLS were affected by the position of the non-stance leg in healthy females. Practitioners can use these findings to distinguish between SLS variations and to select the appropriate SLS for assessment and rehabilitation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3. SN - 2159-2896 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27104053/NOT_ALL_SINGLE_LEG_SQUATS_ARE_EQUAL:_A_BIOMECHANICAL_COMPARISON_OF_THREE_VARIATIONS_ L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/27104053/ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -