Everolimus Versus Mycophenolate Mofetil De Novo After Lung Transplantation: A Prospective, Randomized, Open-Label Trial.Am J Transplant 2016; 16(11):3171-3180AJ
The role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors in de novo immunosuppression after lung transplantation is not well defined. We compared Everolimus versus mycophenolate mofetil in an investigator-initiated single-center trial in Hannover, Germany. A total of 190 patients were randomly assigned 1:1 on day 28 posttransplantation to mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or Everolimus combined with cyclosporine A (CsA) and steroids. Patients were followed up for 2 years. The primary endpoint was freedom from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). The secondary endpoints were incidence of acute rejections, infections, treatment failure and kidney function. BOS-free survival in intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis was similar in both groups (p = 0.174). The study protocol was completed by 51% of enrolled patients. The per-protocol analysis shows incidence of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS): 1/43 in the Everolimus group and 8/54 in the MMF group (p = 0.041). Less biopsy-proven acute rejection (AR) (p = 0.005), cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia (p = 0.005) and lower respiratory tract infection (p = 0.003) and no leucopenia were seen in the Everolimus group. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreased in both groups about 50% within 6 months. Due to a high withdrawal rate, the study was underpowered to prove a difference in BOS-free survival. The dropout rate was more pronounced in the Everolimus group. Secondary endpoints indicate potential advantages of Everolimus-based protocols but also a potentially higher rate of drug-related serious adverse events.