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Social and occupational factors associated with psychological distress and disorder among disaster responders: a systematic review.
BMC Psychol. 2016 Apr 26; 4:18.BP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

When disasters occur, there are many different occupational groups involved in rescue, recovery and support efforts. This study aimed to conduct a systematic literature review to identify social and occupational factors affecting the psychological impact of disasters on responders.

METHODS

Four electronic literature databases (MEDLINE®, Embase, PsycINFO® and Web of Science) were searched and hand searches of reference lists were carried out. Papers were screened against specific inclusion criteria (e.g. published in peer-reviewed journal in English; included a quantitative measure of wellbeing; participants were disaster responders). Data was extracted from relevant papers and thematic analysis was used to develop a list of key factors affecting the wellbeing of disaster responders.

RESULTS

Eighteen thousand five papers were found and 111 included in the review. The psychological impact of disasters on responders appeared associated with pre-disaster factors (occupational factors; specialised training and preparedness; life events and health), during-disaster factors (exposure; duration on site and arrival time; emotional involvement; peri-traumatic distress/dissociation; role-related stressors; perceptions of safety, threat and risk; harm to self or close others; social support; professional support) and post-disaster factors (professional support; impact on life; life events; media; coping strategies).

CONCLUSIONS

There are steps that can be taken at all stages of a disaster (before, during and after) which may minimise risks to responders and enhance resilience. Preparedness (for the demands of the role and the potential psychological impact) and support (particularly from the organisation) are essential. The findings of this review could potentially be used to develop training workshops for professionals involved in disaster response.

Authors+Show Affiliations

King's College London, Department of Psychological Medicine, Cutcombe Road, London, SE5 9RJ, UK. samantha.k.brooks@kcl.ac.uk.King's College London, Department of Psychological Medicine, Cutcombe Road, London, SE5 9RJ, UK.Public Health England, Emergency Response Department Science and Technology, Health Protection and Medical Directorate, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wilts, SP4 0JG, UK.King's College London, Department of Psychological Medicine, Cutcombe Road, London, SE5 9RJ, UK.King's College London, Department of Psychological Medicine, Cutcombe Road, London, SE5 9RJ, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27114240

Citation

Brooks, Samantha K., et al. "Social and Occupational Factors Associated With Psychological Distress and Disorder Among Disaster Responders: a Systematic Review." BMC Psychology, vol. 4, 2016, p. 18.
Brooks SK, Dunn R, Amlôt R, et al. Social and occupational factors associated with psychological distress and disorder among disaster responders: a systematic review. BMC Psychol. 2016;4:18.
Brooks, S. K., Dunn, R., Amlôt, R., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2016). Social and occupational factors associated with psychological distress and disorder among disaster responders: a systematic review. BMC Psychology, 4, 18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-016-0120-9
Brooks SK, et al. Social and Occupational Factors Associated With Psychological Distress and Disorder Among Disaster Responders: a Systematic Review. BMC Psychol. 2016 Apr 26;4:18. PubMed PMID: 27114240.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Social and occupational factors associated with psychological distress and disorder among disaster responders: a systematic review. AU - Brooks,Samantha K, AU - Dunn,Rebecca, AU - Amlôt,Richard, AU - Greenberg,Neil, AU - Rubin,G James, Y1 - 2016/04/26/ PY - 2015/11/02/received PY - 2016/03/29/accepted PY - 2016/4/27/entrez PY - 2016/4/27/pubmed PY - 2016/9/2/medline KW - Disaster response KW - Disasters KW - Psychological impact KW - Systematic review KW - Wellbeing SP - 18 EP - 18 JF - BMC psychology JO - BMC Psychol VL - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: When disasters occur, there are many different occupational groups involved in rescue, recovery and support efforts. This study aimed to conduct a systematic literature review to identify social and occupational factors affecting the psychological impact of disasters on responders. METHODS: Four electronic literature databases (MEDLINE®, Embase, PsycINFO® and Web of Science) were searched and hand searches of reference lists were carried out. Papers were screened against specific inclusion criteria (e.g. published in peer-reviewed journal in English; included a quantitative measure of wellbeing; participants were disaster responders). Data was extracted from relevant papers and thematic analysis was used to develop a list of key factors affecting the wellbeing of disaster responders. RESULTS: Eighteen thousand five papers were found and 111 included in the review. The psychological impact of disasters on responders appeared associated with pre-disaster factors (occupational factors; specialised training and preparedness; life events and health), during-disaster factors (exposure; duration on site and arrival time; emotional involvement; peri-traumatic distress/dissociation; role-related stressors; perceptions of safety, threat and risk; harm to self or close others; social support; professional support) and post-disaster factors (professional support; impact on life; life events; media; coping strategies). CONCLUSIONS: There are steps that can be taken at all stages of a disaster (before, during and after) which may minimise risks to responders and enhance resilience. Preparedness (for the demands of the role and the potential psychological impact) and support (particularly from the organisation) are essential. The findings of this review could potentially be used to develop training workshops for professionals involved in disaster response. SN - 2050-7283 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27114240/Social_and_occupational_factors_associated_with_psychological_distress_and_disorder_among_disaster_responders:_a_systematic_review_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -