Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Neurobiology of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP).
Brain Res Bull. 2016 09; 126(Pt 1):111-126.BR

Abstract

Synthetic cathinones are analogs of cathinone or β-ketoamphetamine - the major psychostimulant component of the shrub Catha edulis or khat. Cathinone analogs - though not termed as such - have been known for >100 years, but confusing chemical nomenclature often made the topic difficult to appreciate. In addition, many of the early analogs were prepared as synthetic precursors for the development of various other agents, and relatively few were pharmacologically evaluated. Cathinone is a close structural relative of amphetamine. Today, certain cathinone derivatives, synthetic cathinones, are known to produce central stimulant actions and represent a "new" class of drugs of abuse. Depending upon the nature of their terminal amine, α substituent, and aryl substituents, they seem to produce their effects via release or reuptake of various neurotansmitters including dopamine norepinephreine and/or serotonin. Two of the newest and most prominent members of the class are MDPV and its parent α-PVP ("flakka"). Both have been encountered on their own and in what might be constituents of what has been termed by a variety of names including psychoactive "bath salts". Here, we describe the nomenclature of synthetic cathinones, the mechanism(s) of action of MDPV and α-PVP, and their structure-activity relationships. In order to assist in forensic studies, and to identify novel substances requiring future pharmacological evaluation, the metabolism of these agents is also described. Finally, the preclinical behavioral actions of these two agents in a variety of behavioral assays, including rodent locomotor assays, self-administration studies, intracranial self-stimulation, conditioned place preference, and drug discrimination, is summarized. The results of these studies with MDPV and α-PVP are consistent with their acting as potent cocaine-like central stimulants with abuse liability.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University, Box 980540, Richmond, VA, 23298 USA. Electronic address: glennon@vcu.edu.Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University, Box 980540, Richmond, VA, 23298 USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27142261

Citation

Glennon, Richard A., and Richard Young. "Neurobiology of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and Α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP)." Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 126, no. Pt 1, 2016, pp. 111-126.
Glennon RA, Young R. Neurobiology of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP). Brain Res Bull. 2016;126(Pt 1):111-126.
Glennon, R. A., & Young, R. (2016). Neurobiology of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP). Brain Research Bulletin, 126(Pt 1), 111-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2016.04.011
Glennon RA, Young R. Neurobiology of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and Α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP). Brain Res Bull. 2016;126(Pt 1):111-126. PubMed PMID: 27142261.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Neurobiology of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP). AU - Glennon,Richard A, AU - Young,Richard, Y1 - 2016/04/29/ PY - 2016/02/10/received PY - 2016/04/13/revised PY - 2016/04/18/accepted PY - 2016/5/5/pubmed PY - 2017/10/31/medline PY - 2016/5/5/entrez KW - Behavioral studies KW - Mechanism of action KW - Metabolism KW - Structure-activity relationships (SAR) KW - Synthetic cathinones SP - 111 EP - 126 JF - Brain research bulletin JO - Brain Res. Bull. VL - 126 IS - Pt 1 N2 - Synthetic cathinones are analogs of cathinone or β-ketoamphetamine - the major psychostimulant component of the shrub Catha edulis or khat. Cathinone analogs - though not termed as such - have been known for >100 years, but confusing chemical nomenclature often made the topic difficult to appreciate. In addition, many of the early analogs were prepared as synthetic precursors for the development of various other agents, and relatively few were pharmacologically evaluated. Cathinone is a close structural relative of amphetamine. Today, certain cathinone derivatives, synthetic cathinones, are known to produce central stimulant actions and represent a "new" class of drugs of abuse. Depending upon the nature of their terminal amine, α substituent, and aryl substituents, they seem to produce their effects via release or reuptake of various neurotansmitters including dopamine norepinephreine and/or serotonin. Two of the newest and most prominent members of the class are MDPV and its parent α-PVP ("flakka"). Both have been encountered on their own and in what might be constituents of what has been termed by a variety of names including psychoactive "bath salts". Here, we describe the nomenclature of synthetic cathinones, the mechanism(s) of action of MDPV and α-PVP, and their structure-activity relationships. In order to assist in forensic studies, and to identify novel substances requiring future pharmacological evaluation, the metabolism of these agents is also described. Finally, the preclinical behavioral actions of these two agents in a variety of behavioral assays, including rodent locomotor assays, self-administration studies, intracranial self-stimulation, conditioned place preference, and drug discrimination, is summarized. The results of these studies with MDPV and α-PVP are consistent with their acting as potent cocaine-like central stimulants with abuse liability. SN - 1873-2747 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27142261/Neurobiology_of_34_methylenedioxypyrovalerone__MDPV__and_α_pyrrolidinovalerophenone__α_PVP__ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0361-9230(16)30085-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -