Effects of whole body vibration on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Osteoporos Int. 2016 10; 27(10):2913-33.OI
This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified significant effects of whole body vibration (WBV) on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (in the sensitivity analysis and seven subgroup analyses), femoral neck (in one subgroup analysis), and trochanter (four subgroup analyses) in postmenopausal women, but not other measurements of BMD.
Interventions using WBV training have been conducted in postmenopausal women, aimed at increasing BMD; however, the results are contradictory. Our objective is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs examining WBV effect on BMD.
RCTs were considered eligible, with follow-up ≥6 months, which verified the effects of WBV on the BMD of postmenopausal women. The calculations of the meta-analysis were performed through the weighted mean difference between the WBV and control groups, or the WBV and combined training, through the absolute change between pre- and post-intervention in the areal bone mineral density (aBMD) or trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMDt).
Fifteen RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. No differences were observed in the primary analysis. WBV was found to improve aBMD compared with the control group, after exclusion of studies with low quality methodological (lumbar spine), when excluding the studies which combined WBV with medication or combined training (lumbar spine), with the use of low frequency and high magnitude (lumbar spine and trochanter), high frequency and low magnitude (lumbar spine), high cumulative dose and low magnitude (lumbar spine), low cumulative dose and high magnitude (lumbar spine and trochanter), with semi-flexed knee (lumbar spine, femoral neck, and trochanter), and side-alternating type of vibration (lumbar spine and trochanter).
Despite WBV presenting potential to act as a coadjuvant in the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis, especially for aBMD of the lumbar spine, the ideal intervention is not yet clear. Our subgroup analyses helped to demonstrate the various factors which appear to influence the effects of WBV on BMD, contributing to clinical practice and the definition of protocols for future interventions.