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Exergame and Balance Training Modulate Prefrontal Brain Activity during Walking and Enhance Executive Function in Older Adults.
Front Aging Neurosci. 2016; 8:66.FA

Abstract

Different types of exercise training have the potential to induce structural and functional brain plasticity in the elderly. Thereby, functional brain adaptations were observed during cognitive tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that correlated with improved cognitive performance. This study aimed to investigate if exercise training induces functional brain plasticity during challenging treadmill walking and elicits associated changes in cognitive executive functions. Forty-two elderly participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either interactive cognitive-motor video game dancing (DANCE) or balance and stretching training (BALANCE). The 8-week intervention included three sessions of 30 min per week and was completed by 33 participants (mean age 74.9 ± 6.9 years). Prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during preferred and fast walking speed on a treadmill was assessed applying functional near infrared spectroscopy pre- and post-intervention. Additionally, executive functions comprising shifting, inhibition, and working memory were assessed. The results showed that both interventions significantly reduced left and right hemispheric PFC oxygenation during the acceleration of walking (p < 0.05 or trend, r = 0.25-0.36), while DANCE showed a larger reduction at the end of the 30-s walking task compared to BALANCE in the left PFC [F (1, 31) = 3.54, p = 0.035, r = 0.32]. These exercise training induced modulations in PFC oxygenation correlated with improved executive functions (p < 0.05 or trend, r = 0.31-0.50). The observed reductions in PFC activity may release cognitive resources to focus attention on other processes while walking, which could be relevant to improve mobility and falls prevention in the elderly. This study provides a deeper understanding of the associations between exercise training, brain function during walking, and cognition in older adults.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich Zurich, Switzerland.Biomedical Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Neonatology, University Hospital Zurich Zurich, Switzerland.Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich Zurich, Switzerland.Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH ZurichZurich, Switzerland; Department of Epidemiology, CAPHRI School for Public Health and Primary Care, Maastricht UniversityMaastricht, Netherlands; Centre for Evidence Based Physiotherapy, Maastricht UniversityMaastricht, Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27148041

Citation

Eggenberger, Patrick, et al. "Exergame and Balance Training Modulate Prefrontal Brain Activity During Walking and Enhance Executive Function in Older Adults." Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, vol. 8, 2016, p. 66.
Eggenberger P, Wolf M, Schumann M, et al. Exergame and Balance Training Modulate Prefrontal Brain Activity during Walking and Enhance Executive Function in Older Adults. Front Aging Neurosci. 2016;8:66.
Eggenberger, P., Wolf, M., Schumann, M., & de Bruin, E. D. (2016). Exergame and Balance Training Modulate Prefrontal Brain Activity during Walking and Enhance Executive Function in Older Adults. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 8, 66. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2016.00066
Eggenberger P, et al. Exergame and Balance Training Modulate Prefrontal Brain Activity During Walking and Enhance Executive Function in Older Adults. Front Aging Neurosci. 2016;8:66. PubMed PMID: 27148041.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Exergame and Balance Training Modulate Prefrontal Brain Activity during Walking and Enhance Executive Function in Older Adults. AU - Eggenberger,Patrick, AU - Wolf,Martin, AU - Schumann,Martina, AU - de Bruin,Eling D, Y1 - 2016/04/12/ PY - 2016/01/23/received PY - 2016/03/21/accepted PY - 2016/5/6/entrez PY - 2016/5/6/pubmed PY - 2016/5/6/medline KW - cognition KW - elderly KW - functional near-infrared spectroscopy KW - gait KW - hemispheric asymmetry KW - interactive cognitive-motor video game dancing KW - prefrontal cortex KW - simultaneous cognitive-physical training SP - 66 EP - 66 JF - Frontiers in aging neuroscience JO - Front Aging Neurosci VL - 8 N2 - Different types of exercise training have the potential to induce structural and functional brain plasticity in the elderly. Thereby, functional brain adaptations were observed during cognitive tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that correlated with improved cognitive performance. This study aimed to investigate if exercise training induces functional brain plasticity during challenging treadmill walking and elicits associated changes in cognitive executive functions. Forty-two elderly participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either interactive cognitive-motor video game dancing (DANCE) or balance and stretching training (BALANCE). The 8-week intervention included three sessions of 30 min per week and was completed by 33 participants (mean age 74.9 ± 6.9 years). Prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during preferred and fast walking speed on a treadmill was assessed applying functional near infrared spectroscopy pre- and post-intervention. Additionally, executive functions comprising shifting, inhibition, and working memory were assessed. The results showed that both interventions significantly reduced left and right hemispheric PFC oxygenation during the acceleration of walking (p < 0.05 or trend, r = 0.25-0.36), while DANCE showed a larger reduction at the end of the 30-s walking task compared to BALANCE in the left PFC [F (1, 31) = 3.54, p = 0.035, r = 0.32]. These exercise training induced modulations in PFC oxygenation correlated with improved executive functions (p < 0.05 or trend, r = 0.31-0.50). The observed reductions in PFC activity may release cognitive resources to focus attention on other processes while walking, which could be relevant to improve mobility and falls prevention in the elderly. This study provides a deeper understanding of the associations between exercise training, brain function during walking, and cognition in older adults. SN - 1663-4365 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27148041/Exergame_and_Balance_Training_Modulate_Prefrontal_Brain_Activity_during_Walking_and_Enhance_Executive_Function_in_Older_Adults_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2016.00066 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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