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Formation of bromate during ferrate(VI) oxidation of bromide in water.
Chemosphere. 2016 Jul; 155:528-533.C

Abstract

Ferrate (VI) is traditionally recognized as a safe oxidant without production of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). However, here we detected probable carcinogenic bromate (BrO3(-)) during ferrate(VI) oxidation of bromide (Br(-))-containing water, and evaluated the effects of pH, ferrate(VI) dose, initial Br(-) concentration, and co-existing anions on the BrO3(-) formation. BrO3(-) was produced at a moderately-weakly acidic pH condition and in the absence of phosphate that was commonly applied as a buffer and stabilizing agent in previous ferrate(VI) studies. At pH 5.0, the produced BrO3(-) was increased from 12.5 to 273.8 μg/L with the increasing initial Br(-) concentration from 200 to 1000 μg/L at 10 mg/L Fe(VI), corresponding to an increase in the molar conversion ([BrO3(-)]/initial [Br(-)]) from 2.3% to 10.3%, in a bicarbonate-buffered solution. As pH increased to 7.0, the BrO3(-) concentration gradually dropped. The BrO3(-) production appeared to be associated with the oxidation by high valence iron species (i.e. Fe(VI), Fe(V) and Fe(IV)). Two key intermediate products (i.e. hypobromous acid/hypobromite (HOBr/OBr(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)) relevant to the bromate formation were identified. The production of HOBr, a requisite intermediate for the ensuing bromate formation, was indirectly validated through identification of bromine-containing trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids during ferrate oxidation in a natural water, though these bromo-organic DBPs produced were insignificant. Furthermore, the inhibition effects of various anions on the formation of BrO3(-) followed chloride < sulfate < silicate < phosphate. More H2O2 was detected at higher phosphate concentration. It could reduce HOBr to Br(-), thereby inhibiting the bromate formation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, China; Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, 1 Normal Ave., New Jersey, 07043, United States.Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, 1 Normal Ave., New Jersey, 07043, United States. Electronic address: dengy@mail.montclair.edu.School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, China.Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, 1 Normal Ave., New Jersey, 07043, United States; School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University of Science and Technology, Hangzhou, 310023, China.Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, 1 Normal Ave., New Jersey, 07043, United States.School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27153235

Citation

Huang, Xin, et al. "Formation of Bromate During ferrate(VI) Oxidation of Bromide in Water." Chemosphere, vol. 155, 2016, pp. 528-533.
Huang X, Deng Y, Liu S, et al. Formation of bromate during ferrate(VI) oxidation of bromide in water. Chemosphere. 2016;155:528-533.
Huang, X., Deng, Y., Liu, S., Song, Y., Li, N., & Zhou, J. (2016). Formation of bromate during ferrate(VI) oxidation of bromide in water. Chemosphere, 155, 528-533. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.04.093
Huang X, et al. Formation of Bromate During ferrate(VI) Oxidation of Bromide in Water. Chemosphere. 2016;155:528-533. PubMed PMID: 27153235.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Formation of bromate during ferrate(VI) oxidation of bromide in water. AU - Huang,Xin, AU - Deng,Yang, AU - Liu,Shuang, AU - Song,Yali, AU - Li,Nanzhu, AU - Zhou,Jizhi, Y1 - 2016/05/03/ PY - 2016/04/04/received PY - 2016/04/22/revised PY - 2016/04/24/accepted PY - 2016/5/7/entrez PY - 2016/5/7/pubmed PY - 2017/3/23/medline KW - Bromate(−) KW - Bromide KW - Chemical oxidation KW - Disinfection byproducts KW - Ferrate(VI) KW - Phosphate SP - 528 EP - 533 JF - Chemosphere JO - Chemosphere VL - 155 N2 - Ferrate (VI) is traditionally recognized as a safe oxidant without production of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). However, here we detected probable carcinogenic bromate (BrO3(-)) during ferrate(VI) oxidation of bromide (Br(-))-containing water, and evaluated the effects of pH, ferrate(VI) dose, initial Br(-) concentration, and co-existing anions on the BrO3(-) formation. BrO3(-) was produced at a moderately-weakly acidic pH condition and in the absence of phosphate that was commonly applied as a buffer and stabilizing agent in previous ferrate(VI) studies. At pH 5.0, the produced BrO3(-) was increased from 12.5 to 273.8 μg/L with the increasing initial Br(-) concentration from 200 to 1000 μg/L at 10 mg/L Fe(VI), corresponding to an increase in the molar conversion ([BrO3(-)]/initial [Br(-)]) from 2.3% to 10.3%, in a bicarbonate-buffered solution. As pH increased to 7.0, the BrO3(-) concentration gradually dropped. The BrO3(-) production appeared to be associated with the oxidation by high valence iron species (i.e. Fe(VI), Fe(V) and Fe(IV)). Two key intermediate products (i.e. hypobromous acid/hypobromite (HOBr/OBr(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)) relevant to the bromate formation were identified. The production of HOBr, a requisite intermediate for the ensuing bromate formation, was indirectly validated through identification of bromine-containing trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids during ferrate oxidation in a natural water, though these bromo-organic DBPs produced were insignificant. Furthermore, the inhibition effects of various anions on the formation of BrO3(-) followed chloride < sulfate < silicate < phosphate. More H2O2 was detected at higher phosphate concentration. It could reduce HOBr to Br(-), thereby inhibiting the bromate formation. SN - 1879-1298 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27153235/Formation_of_bromate_during_ferrate_VI__oxidation_of_bromide_in_water_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0045-6535(16)30583-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -