Polycystic ovary syndrome: Endometrial markers.Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2016 Nov; 37:66-79.BP
Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) present with several endometrial abnormalities possibly explaining some of the adverse endometrium-related outcomes in these women. PCOS and an increased miscarriage rate have been suggested to coincide, but the results are conflicting. Recent studies have also shown increased risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, and premature delivery that may be related to altered decidualization/placentation in affected women. In the long run, PCOS per se is associated with the occurrence of endometrial cancer (EC), with obesity aggravating the risk. Most investigated markers of the endometrial abnormalities in women with PCOS are related to steroid hormone action (ERs (estrogen receptors), PRs (progesterone receptors), ARs (androgen receptors), and steroid receptor coactivators), endometrial receptivity/decidualization (HOXA10, αvβ3 integrin, and IGFBP-1 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1)), glucose metabolism (IRs (insulin receptors), glucose transporters, IGFs) and inflammation/immune cell migration ((IL-6 (interleukin 6), CCL2 (CC motif ligand), and uNK (uterine natural killer) cells). Despite several endometrial abnormalities in women with PCOS, the clinical relevance of these findings still awaits future clarification; to date, no common screening protocols/recommendations for women with PCOS have been established.