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Venom of the Coral Snake Micrurus clarki: Proteomic Profile, Toxicity, Immunological Cross-Neutralization, and Characterization of a Three-Finger Toxin.
Toxins (Basel). 2016 05 05; 8(5)T

Abstract

Micrurus clarki is an uncommon coral snake distributed from the Southeastern Pacific of Costa Rica to Western Colombia, for which no information on its venom could be found in the literature. Using a 'venomics' approach, proteins of at least nine families were identified, with a moderate predominance of three-finger toxins (3FTx; 48.2%) over phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂; 36.5%). Comparison of this venom profile with those of other Micrurus species suggests that it may represent a more balanced, 'intermediate' type within the dichotomy between 3FTx- and PLA₂-predominant venoms. M. clarki venom was strongly cross-recognized and, accordingly, efficiently neutralized by an equine therapeutic antivenom against M. nigrocinctus, revealing their high antigenic similarity. Lethal activity for mice could be reproduced by a PLA₂ venom fraction, but, unexpectedly, not by fractions corresponding to 3FTxs. The most abundant venom component, hereby named clarkitoxin-I, was identified as a short-chain (type I) 3FTx, devoid of lethal effect in mice, whose target remains to be defined. Its amino acid sequence of 66 residues shows high similarity with predicted sequences of venom gland transcripts described for M. fulvius, M. browni, and M. diastema.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José 11501, Costa Rica. bruno.lomonte@ucr.ac.cr.Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José 11501, Costa Rica. msasamarin@gmail.com.Programa de Ofidismo y Escorpionismo, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín 050010, Colombia. ofidpa@gmail.com.Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José 11501, Costa Rica. wenjbq@gmail.com.Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José 11501, Costa Rica. jose.gutierrez@ucr.ac.cr.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27164141

Citation

Lomonte, Bruno, et al. "Venom of the Coral Snake Micrurus Clarki: Proteomic Profile, Toxicity, Immunological Cross-Neutralization, and Characterization of a Three-Finger Toxin." Toxins, vol. 8, no. 5, 2016.
Lomonte B, Sasa M, Rey-Suárez P, et al. Venom of the Coral Snake Micrurus clarki: Proteomic Profile, Toxicity, Immunological Cross-Neutralization, and Characterization of a Three-Finger Toxin. Toxins (Basel). 2016;8(5).
Lomonte, B., Sasa, M., Rey-Suárez, P., Bryan, W., & Gutiérrez, J. M. (2016). Venom of the Coral Snake Micrurus clarki: Proteomic Profile, Toxicity, Immunological Cross-Neutralization, and Characterization of a Three-Finger Toxin. Toxins, 8(5). https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8050138
Lomonte B, et al. Venom of the Coral Snake Micrurus Clarki: Proteomic Profile, Toxicity, Immunological Cross-Neutralization, and Characterization of a Three-Finger Toxin. Toxins (Basel). 2016 05 5;8(5) PubMed PMID: 27164141.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Venom of the Coral Snake Micrurus clarki: Proteomic Profile, Toxicity, Immunological Cross-Neutralization, and Characterization of a Three-Finger Toxin. AU - Lomonte,Bruno, AU - Sasa,Mahmood, AU - Rey-Suárez,Paola, AU - Bryan,Wendy, AU - Gutiérrez,José María, Y1 - 2016/05/05/ PY - 2016/03/26/received PY - 2016/04/25/revised PY - 2016/05/02/accepted PY - 2016/5/11/entrez PY - 2016/5/11/pubmed PY - 2017/11/1/medline KW - Elapidae KW - Micrurus KW - antivenom KW - monadal coral snake KW - neutralization KW - proteome KW - toxin KW - venom JF - Toxins JO - Toxins (Basel) VL - 8 IS - 5 N2 - Micrurus clarki is an uncommon coral snake distributed from the Southeastern Pacific of Costa Rica to Western Colombia, for which no information on its venom could be found in the literature. Using a 'venomics' approach, proteins of at least nine families were identified, with a moderate predominance of three-finger toxins (3FTx; 48.2%) over phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂; 36.5%). Comparison of this venom profile with those of other Micrurus species suggests that it may represent a more balanced, 'intermediate' type within the dichotomy between 3FTx- and PLA₂-predominant venoms. M. clarki venom was strongly cross-recognized and, accordingly, efficiently neutralized by an equine therapeutic antivenom against M. nigrocinctus, revealing their high antigenic similarity. Lethal activity for mice could be reproduced by a PLA₂ venom fraction, but, unexpectedly, not by fractions corresponding to 3FTxs. The most abundant venom component, hereby named clarkitoxin-I, was identified as a short-chain (type I) 3FTx, devoid of lethal effect in mice, whose target remains to be defined. Its amino acid sequence of 66 residues shows high similarity with predicted sequences of venom gland transcripts described for M. fulvius, M. browni, and M. diastema. SN - 2072-6651 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27164141/Venom_of_the_Coral_Snake_Micrurus_clarki:_Proteomic_Profile_Toxicity_Immunological_Cross_Neutralization_and_Characterization_of_a_Three_Finger_Toxin_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=toxins8050138 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -