Sexual, reproductive and contraceptive risk factors for carcinoma-in-situ of the uterine cervix in Sydney.Med J Aust. 1989 Feb 06; 150(3):125-30.MJ
Sexual, reproductive and contraceptive risk factors were investigated in a matched community-based case-control study of carcinoma-in-situ of the uterine cervix in Sydney. The risk was related strongly to the number of sexual partners: women who had had seven or more sexual partners in a lifetime had a six-fold increased risk compared with those with one or no partner. Early age at first sexual intercourse was also a risk factor, but this effect was reduced substantially after adjustment for the number of partners, with only a two-fold excess risk persisting for those with first intercourse before the age of 16 years as compared with those whose first sexual intercourse was at the age of 25 years or later. The long-term use of oral contraceptive agents was associated with an elevated risk (relative risk, 2.3 for more than six years of use); this effect was maintained for both oestrogen and progestogen doses. The risk increased with the number of induced abortions that had been undergone (relative risk, 2.2 for two or more abortions), but this effect was not statistically significant. A protective effect was found for women who had had a tubal ligation, for those who practised the rhythm method of birth control, and for women who breastfed. It is possible that these reduced risks may relate to unmeasured variables of life-style.