Direct inhibition of osteoblastic Wnt pathway by fibroblast growth factor 23 contributes to bone loss in chronic kidney disease.Kidney Int. 2016 07; 90(1):77-89.KI
Bone loss and increased fractures are common complications in chronic kidney disease. Because Wnt pathway activation is essential for normal bone mineralization, we assessed whether Wnt inhibition contributes to high-phosphorus-induced mineralization defects in uremic rats. By week 20 after 7/8 nephrectomy, rats fed a high-phosphorus diet had the expected high serum creatinine, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels and low serum calcium. There was a 15% reduction in tibial mineral density and a doubling of bone cortical porosity compared to uremic rats fed a normal-phosphorus diet. The decreases in tibial mineral density were preceded by time-dependent increments in gene expression of bone formation (Osteocalcin and Runx2) and resorption (Cathepsin K) markers, which paralleled elevations in gene expression of the Wnt inhibitors Sfrp1 and Dkk1 in bone. Similar elevations of Wnt inhibitors plus an increased phospho-β-catenin/β-catenin ratio occurred upon exposure of the osteoblast cell line UMR106-01 either to uremic serum or to the combination of parathyroid hormone, FGF23, and soluble Klotho, at levels present in uremic serum. Strikingly, while osteoblast exposure to parathyroid hormone suppressed the expression of Wnt inhibitors, FGF23 directly inhibited the osteoblastic Wnt pathway through a soluble Klotho/MAPK-mediated process that required Dkk1 induction. Thus, the induction of Dkk1 by FGF23/soluble Klotho in osteoblasts inactivates Wnt/β-catenin signaling. This provides a novel autocrine/paracrine mechanism for the adverse impact of high FGF23 levels on bone in chronic kidney disease.