Carnosic Acid Prevents Beta-Amyloid-Induced Injury in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells via the Induction of Autophagy.Neurochem Res. 2016 Sep; 41(9):2311-23.NR
Beta-amyloid (Aβ), the hallmark protein in Alzheimer's disease (AD), induces neurotoxicity that involves oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to cell death. Carnosic acid (CA), a polyphenolic diterpene isolated from the herb rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis), was investigated in our study to assess its neuroprotective effect and underlying mechanism against Aβ-induced injury in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We found that CA pretreatment alleviated the Aβ25-35-induced loss of cell viability, inhibited both Aβ1-42 accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation, reduced reactive oxygen species generation, and maintained the mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, CA increased the microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II/I ratio and decreased SQSTM1(p62), indicating that CA could induce autophagy. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) attenuated the neuroprotective effect of CA, suggesting that autophagy was involved in the neuroprotection of CA. It was also observed that CA activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) but inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Furthermore, blocking AMPK with si-AMPKα successfully inhibited the upregulation of LC3-II/I, prevented the downregulation of phosphorylation of mTOR and SQSTM1(p62), indicating that CA induced autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells via the activation of AMPK. These results suggested that CA might be a potential agent for preventing AD.