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Multiple introductions of a reassortant H5N1 avian influenza virus of clade 2.3.2.1c with PB2 gene of H9N2 subtype into Indian poultry.
Infect Genet Evol 2016; 43:173-8IG

Abstract

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are a threat to poultry in Asia, Europe, Africa and North America. Here, we report isolation and characterization of H5N1 viruses isolated from ducks and turkeys in Kerala, Chandigarh and Uttar Pradesh, India between November 2014 and March 2015. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of haemagglutinin gene identified that the virus belonged to a new clade 2.3.2.1c which has not been detected earlier in Indian poultry. The virus possessed molecular signature for high pathogenicity to chickens, which was corroborated by intravenous pathogenicity index of 2.96. The virus was a reassortant which derives its PB2 gene from H9N2 virus isolated in China during 2007-2013. However, the neuraminidase and internal genes are of H5N1 subtype. Phylogenetic and network analysis revealed that after detection in China in 2013/2014, the virus moved to Europe, West Africa and other Asian countries including India. The analyses further indicated multiple introductions of H5N1 virus in Indian poultry and internal spread in Kerala. One of the outbreaks in ducks in Kerala is linked to the H5N1 virus isolated from wild birds in Dubai suggesting movement of virus probably through migration of wild birds. However, the outbreaks in ducks in Chandigarh and Uttar Pradesh were from an unknown source in Asia which also contributed gene pools to the outbreaks in Europe and West Africa. The widespread incidence of the novel H5N1 HPAI is similar to the spread of clade 2.2 ("Qinghai-like") virus in 2005, and should be monitored to avoid threat to animal and public health.

Authors+Show Affiliations

ICAR-National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, Bhopal 462 022, India. Electronic address: chakradhar.tosh@gmail.com.ICAR-National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, Bhopal 462 022, India.ICAR-National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, Bhopal 462 022, India.ICAR-National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, Bhopal 462 022, India.ICAR-National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, Bhopal 462 022, India.ICAR-National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, Bhopal 462 022, India.ICAR-National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, Bhopal 462 022, India.ICAR-National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, Bhopal 462 022, India.ICAR-National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, Bhopal 462 022, India.ICAR-National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, Bhopal 462 022, India.ICAR-National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, Bhopal 462 022, India.ICAR-National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, Bhopal 462 022, India.ICAR-National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, Bhopal 462 022, India.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27174088

Citation

Tosh, Chakradhar, et al. "Multiple Introductions of a Reassortant H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus of Clade 2.3.2.1c With PB2 Gene of H9N2 Subtype Into Indian Poultry." Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases, vol. 43, 2016, pp. 173-8.
Tosh C, Nagarajan S, Kumar M, et al. Multiple introductions of a reassortant H5N1 avian influenza virus of clade 2.3.2.1c with PB2 gene of H9N2 subtype into Indian poultry. Infect Genet Evol. 2016;43:173-8.
Tosh, C., Nagarajan, S., Kumar, M., Murugkar, H. V., Venkatesh, G., Shukla, S., ... Kulkarni, D. D. (2016). Multiple introductions of a reassortant H5N1 avian influenza virus of clade 2.3.2.1c with PB2 gene of H9N2 subtype into Indian poultry. Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases, 43, pp. 173-8. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2016.05.012.
Tosh C, et al. Multiple Introductions of a Reassortant H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus of Clade 2.3.2.1c With PB2 Gene of H9N2 Subtype Into Indian Poultry. Infect Genet Evol. 2016;43:173-8. PubMed PMID: 27174088.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Multiple introductions of a reassortant H5N1 avian influenza virus of clade 2.3.2.1c with PB2 gene of H9N2 subtype into Indian poultry. AU - Tosh,Chakradhar, AU - Nagarajan,Shanmugasundaram, AU - Kumar,Manoj, AU - Murugkar,Harshad V, AU - Venkatesh,Govindarajulu, AU - Shukla,Shweta, AU - Mishra,Amit, AU - Mishra,Pranav, AU - Agarwal,Sonam, AU - Singh,Bharati, AU - Dubey,Prashant, AU - Tripathi,Sushil, AU - Kulkarni,Diwakar D, Y1 - 2016/05/10/ PY - 2016/02/19/received PY - 2016/04/25/revised PY - 2016/05/06/accepted PY - 2016/5/14/entrez PY - 2016/5/14/pubmed PY - 2017/10/3/medline KW - Duck KW - H5N1 subtype KW - Highly pathogenic avian influenza KW - India KW - Reassortment KW - Turkey SP - 173 EP - 8 JF - Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases JO - Infect. Genet. Evol. VL - 43 N2 - Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are a threat to poultry in Asia, Europe, Africa and North America. Here, we report isolation and characterization of H5N1 viruses isolated from ducks and turkeys in Kerala, Chandigarh and Uttar Pradesh, India between November 2014 and March 2015. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of haemagglutinin gene identified that the virus belonged to a new clade 2.3.2.1c which has not been detected earlier in Indian poultry. The virus possessed molecular signature for high pathogenicity to chickens, which was corroborated by intravenous pathogenicity index of 2.96. The virus was a reassortant which derives its PB2 gene from H9N2 virus isolated in China during 2007-2013. However, the neuraminidase and internal genes are of H5N1 subtype. Phylogenetic and network analysis revealed that after detection in China in 2013/2014, the virus moved to Europe, West Africa and other Asian countries including India. The analyses further indicated multiple introductions of H5N1 virus in Indian poultry and internal spread in Kerala. One of the outbreaks in ducks in Kerala is linked to the H5N1 virus isolated from wild birds in Dubai suggesting movement of virus probably through migration of wild birds. However, the outbreaks in ducks in Chandigarh and Uttar Pradesh were from an unknown source in Asia which also contributed gene pools to the outbreaks in Europe and West Africa. The widespread incidence of the novel H5N1 HPAI is similar to the spread of clade 2.2 ("Qinghai-like") virus in 2005, and should be monitored to avoid threat to animal and public health. SN - 1567-7257 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27174088/Multiple_introductions_of_a_reassortant_H5N1_avian_influenza_virus_of_clade_2_3_2_1c_with_PB2_gene_of_H9N2_subtype_into_Indian_poultry_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1567-1348(16)30184-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -