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Neither load nor systemic hormones determine resistance training-mediated hypertrophy or strength gains in resistance-trained young men.
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2016 07 01; 121(1):129-38.JA

Abstract

We reported, using a unilateral resistance training (RT) model, that training with high or low loads (mass per repetition) resulted in similar muscle hypertrophy and strength improvements in RT-naïve subjects. Here we aimed to determine whether the same was true in men with previous RT experience using a whole-body RT program and whether postexercise systemic hormone concentrations were related to changes in hypertrophy and strength. Forty-nine resistance-trained men (23 ± 1 yr, mean ± SE) performed 12 wk of whole-body RT. Subjects were randomly allocated into a higher-repetition (HR) group who lifted loads of ∼30-50% of their maximal strength (1RM) for 20-25 repetitions/set (n = 24) or a lower-repetition (LR) group (∼75-90% 1RM, 8-12 repetitions/set, n = 25), with all sets being performed to volitional failure. Skeletal muscle biopsies, strength testing, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and acute changes in systemic hormone concentrations were examined pretraining and posttraining. In response to RT, 1RM strength increased for all exercises in both groups (P < 0.01), with only the change in bench press being significantly different between groups (HR, 9 ± 1, vs. LR, 14 ± 1 kg, P = 0.012). Fat- and bone-free (lean) body mass and type I and type II muscle fiber cross-sectional area increased following training (P < 0.01) with no significant differences between groups. No significant correlations between the acute postexercise rise in any purported anabolic hormone and the change in strength or hypertrophy were found. In congruence with our previous work, acute postexercise systemic hormonal rises are not related to or in any way indicative of RT-mediated gains in muscle mass or strength. Our data show that in resistance-trained individuals, load, when exercises are performed to volitional failure, does not dictate hypertrophy or, for the most part, strength gains.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada;Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada;Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada;Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada;Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada;Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; and.Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; and.Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; phillis@mcmaster.ca.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27174923

Citation

Morton, Robert W., et al. "Neither Load nor Systemic Hormones Determine Resistance Training-mediated Hypertrophy or Strength Gains in Resistance-trained Young Men." Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), vol. 121, no. 1, 2016, pp. 129-38.
Morton RW, Oikawa SY, Wavell CG, et al. Neither load nor systemic hormones determine resistance training-mediated hypertrophy or strength gains in resistance-trained young men. J Appl Physiol. 2016;121(1):129-38.
Morton, R. W., Oikawa, S. Y., Wavell, C. G., Mazara, N., McGlory, C., Quadrilatero, J., Baechler, B. L., Baker, S. K., & Phillips, S. M. (2016). Neither load nor systemic hormones determine resistance training-mediated hypertrophy or strength gains in resistance-trained young men. Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 121(1), 129-38. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00154.2016
Morton RW, et al. Neither Load nor Systemic Hormones Determine Resistance Training-mediated Hypertrophy or Strength Gains in Resistance-trained Young Men. J Appl Physiol. 2016 07 1;121(1):129-38. PubMed PMID: 27174923.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Neither load nor systemic hormones determine resistance training-mediated hypertrophy or strength gains in resistance-trained young men. AU - Morton,Robert W, AU - Oikawa,Sara Y, AU - Wavell,Christopher G, AU - Mazara,Nicole, AU - McGlory,Chris, AU - Quadrilatero,Joe, AU - Baechler,Brittany L, AU - Baker,Steven K, AU - Phillips,Stuart M, Y1 - 2016/05/12/ PY - 2016/02/16/received PY - 2016/05/06/accepted PY - 2016/5/14/entrez PY - 2016/5/14/pubmed PY - 2017/12/15/medline KW - anabolism KW - growth hormone KW - load KW - strength training KW - testosterone SP - 129 EP - 38 JF - Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) JO - J. Appl. Physiol. VL - 121 IS - 1 N2 - We reported, using a unilateral resistance training (RT) model, that training with high or low loads (mass per repetition) resulted in similar muscle hypertrophy and strength improvements in RT-naïve subjects. Here we aimed to determine whether the same was true in men with previous RT experience using a whole-body RT program and whether postexercise systemic hormone concentrations were related to changes in hypertrophy and strength. Forty-nine resistance-trained men (23 ± 1 yr, mean ± SE) performed 12 wk of whole-body RT. Subjects were randomly allocated into a higher-repetition (HR) group who lifted loads of ∼30-50% of their maximal strength (1RM) for 20-25 repetitions/set (n = 24) or a lower-repetition (LR) group (∼75-90% 1RM, 8-12 repetitions/set, n = 25), with all sets being performed to volitional failure. Skeletal muscle biopsies, strength testing, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and acute changes in systemic hormone concentrations were examined pretraining and posttraining. In response to RT, 1RM strength increased for all exercises in both groups (P < 0.01), with only the change in bench press being significantly different between groups (HR, 9 ± 1, vs. LR, 14 ± 1 kg, P = 0.012). Fat- and bone-free (lean) body mass and type I and type II muscle fiber cross-sectional area increased following training (P < 0.01) with no significant differences between groups. No significant correlations between the acute postexercise rise in any purported anabolic hormone and the change in strength or hypertrophy were found. In congruence with our previous work, acute postexercise systemic hormonal rises are not related to or in any way indicative of RT-mediated gains in muscle mass or strength. Our data show that in resistance-trained individuals, load, when exercises are performed to volitional failure, does not dictate hypertrophy or, for the most part, strength gains. SN - 1522-1601 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27174923/Neither_load_nor_systemic_hormones_determine_resistance_training_mediated_hypertrophy_or_strength_gains_in_resistance_trained_young_men_ L2 - http://www.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.00154.2016?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -