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Glaucoma.

Abstract

Glaucoma is a set of irreversible, progressive optic neuropathies that can lead to severe visual field loss and blindness. The two most common forms of glaucoma, primary open-angle glaucoma and primary angle-closure glaucoma, affect more than 2 million Americans and are increasing in prevalence. Many patients with glaucoma are asymptomatic and do not know they have the disease. Risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma include older age, black race, Hispanic origin, family history of glaucoma, and diabetes mellitus. Risk factors for primary angle-closure glaucoma include older age, Asian descent, and female sex. Advanced disease at initial presentation and treatment nonadherence put patients with glaucoma at risk of disease progression to blindness. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has concluded that the evidence is insufficient to assess the potential benefits and harms of screening for glaucoma in the primary care setting. Regular eye examinations for adults are recommended by the American Academy of Ophthalmology, with the interval depending on patient age and risk factors. Diagnosis of glaucoma requires careful optic nerve evaluation and functional studies assessing a patient's visual field. The goal of treatment with eye drops, laser therapy, or surgery is to slow visual field loss by lowering intraocular pressure. Family physicians can contribute to lowering morbidity from glaucoma through early identification of high-risk patients and by emphasizing treatment adherence in patients with glaucoma.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.

    University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

    Source

    American family physician 93:8 2016 Apr 15 pg 668-74

    MeSH

    Adrenergic alpha-Agonists
    Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
    Age Factors
    Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
    Cholinergic Agonists
    Diabetes Mellitus
    Ethnic Groups
    Glaucoma, Angle-Closure
    Glaucoma, Open-Angle
    Humans
    Mass Screening
    Practice Guidelines as Topic
    Prostaglandins, Synthetic
    Risk Assessment
    Risk Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    27175839

    Citation

    Gupta, Divakar, and Philip P. Chen. "Glaucoma." American Family Physician, vol. 93, no. 8, 2016, pp. 668-74.
    Gupta D, Chen PP. Glaucoma. Am Fam Physician. 2016;93(8):668-74.
    Gupta, D., & Chen, P. P. (2016). Glaucoma. American Family Physician, 93(8), pp. 668-74.
    Gupta D, Chen PP. Glaucoma. Am Fam Physician. 2016 Apr 15;93(8):668-74. PubMed PMID: 27175839.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Glaucoma. AU - Gupta,Divakar, AU - Chen,Philip P, PY - 2016/5/14/entrez PY - 2016/5/14/pubmed PY - 2017/4/7/medline SP - 668 EP - 74 JF - American family physician JO - Am Fam Physician VL - 93 IS - 8 N2 - Glaucoma is a set of irreversible, progressive optic neuropathies that can lead to severe visual field loss and blindness. The two most common forms of glaucoma, primary open-angle glaucoma and primary angle-closure glaucoma, affect more than 2 million Americans and are increasing in prevalence. Many patients with glaucoma are asymptomatic and do not know they have the disease. Risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma include older age, black race, Hispanic origin, family history of glaucoma, and diabetes mellitus. Risk factors for primary angle-closure glaucoma include older age, Asian descent, and female sex. Advanced disease at initial presentation and treatment nonadherence put patients with glaucoma at risk of disease progression to blindness. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has concluded that the evidence is insufficient to assess the potential benefits and harms of screening for glaucoma in the primary care setting. Regular eye examinations for adults are recommended by the American Academy of Ophthalmology, with the interval depending on patient age and risk factors. Diagnosis of glaucoma requires careful optic nerve evaluation and functional studies assessing a patient's visual field. The goal of treatment with eye drops, laser therapy, or surgery is to slow visual field loss by lowering intraocular pressure. Family physicians can contribute to lowering morbidity from glaucoma through early identification of high-risk patients and by emphasizing treatment adherence in patients with glaucoma. SN - 1532-0650 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27175839/Glaucoma_ L2 - http://www.aafp.org/link_out?pmid=27175839 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -