Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Matter and Self-Reported Hypertension: A Prospective Analysis in the Nurses' Health Study.Environ Health Perspect. 2016 09; 124(9):1414-20.EH
Studies have suggested associations between elevated blood pressure and short-term air pollution exposures, but the evidence is mixed regarding long-term exposures on incidence of hypertension.
We examined the association of hypertension incidence with long-term residential exposures to ambient particulate matter (PM) and residential distance to roadway.
We estimated 24-month and cumulative average exposures to PM10, PM2.5, and PM2.5-10 and residential distance to road for women participating in the prospective nationwide Nurses' Health Study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for incident hypertension from 1988 to 2008 using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for potential confounders. We considered effect modification by age, diet, diabetes, obesity, region, and latitude.
Among 74,880 participants, 36,812 incident cases of hypertension were observed during 960,041 person-years. In multivariable models, 10-μg/m3 increases in 24-month average PM10, PM2.5, and PM2.5-10 were associated with small increases in the incidence of hypertension (HR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.04; HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.07; and HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.07, respectively). Associations were stronger among women < 65 years of age (HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.06; HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.12; and HR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.09, respectively) and the obese (HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.12; HR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.23; and HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.19, respectively), with p-values for interaction < 0.05 for all models except age and PM2.5-10. There was no association with roadway proximity.
Long-term exposure to particulate matter was associated with small increases in risk of incident hypertension, particularly among younger women and the obese.
Zhang Z, Laden F, Forman JP, Hart JE. 2016. Long-term exposure to particulate matter and self-reported hypertension: a prospective analysis in the Nurses' Health Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1414-1420; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP163.