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Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Matter and Self-Reported Hypertension: A Prospective Analysis in the Nurses' Health Study.
Environ Health Perspect. 2016 09; 124(9):1414-20.EH

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Studies have suggested associations between elevated blood pressure and short-term air pollution exposures, but the evidence is mixed regarding long-term exposures on incidence of hypertension.

OBJECTIVES

We examined the association of hypertension incidence with long-term residential exposures to ambient particulate matter (PM) and residential distance to roadway.

METHODS

We estimated 24-month and cumulative average exposures to PM10, PM2.5, and PM2.5-10 and residential distance to road for women participating in the prospective nationwide Nurses' Health Study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for incident hypertension from 1988 to 2008 using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for potential confounders. We considered effect modification by age, diet, diabetes, obesity, region, and latitude.

RESULTS

Among 74,880 participants, 36,812 incident cases of hypertension were observed during 960,041 person-years. In multivariable models, 10-μg/m3 increases in 24-month average PM10, PM2.5, and PM2.5-10 were associated with small increases in the incidence of hypertension (HR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.04; HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.07; and HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.07, respectively). Associations were stronger among women < 65 years of age (HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.06; HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.12; and HR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.09, respectively) and the obese (HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.12; HR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.23; and HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.19, respectively), with p-values for interaction < 0.05 for all models except age and PM2.5-10. There was no association with roadway proximity.

CONCLUSIONS

Long-term exposure to particulate matter was associated with small increases in risk of incident hypertension, particularly among younger women and the obese.

CITATION

Zhang Z, Laden F, Forman JP, Hart JE. 2016. Long-term exposure to particulate matter and self-reported hypertension: a prospective analysis in the Nurses' Health Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1414-1420; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP163.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27177127

Citation

Zhang, Zhenyu, et al. "Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Matter and Self-Reported Hypertension: a Prospective Analysis in the Nurses' Health Study." Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 124, no. 9, 2016, pp. 1414-20.
Zhang Z, Laden F, Forman JP, et al. Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Matter and Self-Reported Hypertension: A Prospective Analysis in the Nurses' Health Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2016;124(9):1414-20.
Zhang, Z., Laden, F., Forman, J. P., & Hart, J. E. (2016). Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Matter and Self-Reported Hypertension: A Prospective Analysis in the Nurses' Health Study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 124(9), 1414-20. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP163
Zhang Z, et al. Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Matter and Self-Reported Hypertension: a Prospective Analysis in the Nurses' Health Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2016;124(9):1414-20. PubMed PMID: 27177127.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Matter and Self-Reported Hypertension: A Prospective Analysis in the Nurses' Health Study. AU - Zhang,Zhenyu, AU - Laden,Francine, AU - Forman,John P, AU - Hart,Jaime E, Y1 - 2016/05/13/ PY - 2015/09/23/received PY - 2016/01/21/revised PY - 2016/05/02/accepted PY - 2016/5/14/entrez PY - 2016/5/14/pubmed PY - 2017/9/2/medline SP - 1414 EP - 20 JF - Environmental health perspectives JO - Environ. Health Perspect. VL - 124 IS - 9 N2 - BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested associations between elevated blood pressure and short-term air pollution exposures, but the evidence is mixed regarding long-term exposures on incidence of hypertension. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association of hypertension incidence with long-term residential exposures to ambient particulate matter (PM) and residential distance to roadway. METHODS: We estimated 24-month and cumulative average exposures to PM10, PM2.5, and PM2.5-10 and residential distance to road for women participating in the prospective nationwide Nurses' Health Study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for incident hypertension from 1988 to 2008 using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for potential confounders. We considered effect modification by age, diet, diabetes, obesity, region, and latitude. RESULTS: Among 74,880 participants, 36,812 incident cases of hypertension were observed during 960,041 person-years. In multivariable models, 10-μg/m3 increases in 24-month average PM10, PM2.5, and PM2.5-10 were associated with small increases in the incidence of hypertension (HR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.04; HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.07; and HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.07, respectively). Associations were stronger among women < 65 years of age (HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.06; HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.12; and HR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.09, respectively) and the obese (HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.12; HR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.23; and HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.19, respectively), with p-values for interaction < 0.05 for all models except age and PM2.5-10. There was no association with roadway proximity. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to particulate matter was associated with small increases in risk of incident hypertension, particularly among younger women and the obese. CITATION: Zhang Z, Laden F, Forman JP, Hart JE. 2016. Long-term exposure to particulate matter and self-reported hypertension: a prospective analysis in the Nurses' Health Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1414-1420; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP163. SN - 1552-9924 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27177127/Long_Term_Exposure_to_Particulate_Matter_and_Self_Reported_Hypertension:_A_Prospective_Analysis_in_the_Nurses'_Health_Study_ L2 - https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/doi/full/10.1289/EHP163?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -