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Entomological assessment of yellow fever-epidemic risk indices in Benue State, Nigeria, 2010-2011.
Acta Trop. 2016 Sep; 161:18-25.AT

Abstract

Yellow fever (YF) is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas. In the past, there have been pockets of YF outbreaks in Nigeria that resulted in preventable deaths. Surveillance efforts towards avoiding another outbreak have been put in place with the aim of early detection and control. However, risk indices relating to the density of immature YF-mosquito vectors are given little consideration even though it is the first step in curbing a possible outbreak. Immature collections from 1538 houses in Ega, Oju, Otukpoicho and Otukpo in Benue State were carried out in 2010 and 2011. Risk indices such as house index (HI), container index (CI) and Breteau index (BI) were estimated. Molecular detection of YF was carried out on randomly selected Aedes larvae and pupae. Overall, 431,381 mosquitoes were collected in and around house premises. Thirteen species were identified: Ae. aegypti (Linneaus), Ae. africanus (Theobald), Ae. albopictus (Skuse), Ae. cumminsii (Theobald), Ae. luteocephalus (Newstead), Ae. simpsoni s.l. (Theobald), Ae. vittatus (Bigot), Anopheles gambiae Giles, An. nili (Theobald), Cx. nebulosus Theobald, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Lutzia tigripes (Grandpre and Charmoy) and Toxorhynchites brevipalpis Theobald. The HI, CI and BI for Ae. aegypti were high in all the study locations, but low for Ae. lueteocephalus except in Ega. With 50 immature Aedes mosquitoes screened across locations, only Ae. aegypti from Ega were positive for YF. This study places Ega on a high alert of an impending YF outbreak. Thus, urgent steps to clear this area of potential mosquito sites are highly recommended.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Zoology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria; Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. Electronic address: ekenma.agwu@unn.edu.ng.Department of Zoology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria. Electronic address: igbinosa202@yahoo.com.Department of Zoology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria. Electronic address: cle21200@gmail.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27189925

Citation

Agwu, Ekenma Julia, et al. "Entomological Assessment of Yellow Fever-epidemic Risk Indices in Benue State, Nigeria, 2010-2011." Acta Tropica, vol. 161, 2016, pp. 18-25.
Agwu EJ, Igbinosa IB, Isaac C. Entomological assessment of yellow fever-epidemic risk indices in Benue State, Nigeria, 2010-2011. Acta Trop. 2016;161:18-25.
Agwu, E. J., Igbinosa, I. B., & Isaac, C. (2016). Entomological assessment of yellow fever-epidemic risk indices in Benue State, Nigeria, 2010-2011. Acta Tropica, 161, 18-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.05.005
Agwu EJ, Igbinosa IB, Isaac C. Entomological Assessment of Yellow Fever-epidemic Risk Indices in Benue State, Nigeria, 2010-2011. Acta Trop. 2016;161:18-25. PubMed PMID: 27189925.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Entomological assessment of yellow fever-epidemic risk indices in Benue State, Nigeria, 2010-2011. AU - Agwu,Ekenma Julia, AU - Igbinosa,Igho Benjamin, AU - Isaac,Clement, Y1 - 2016/05/14/ PY - 2016/02/18/received PY - 2016/05/06/revised PY - 2016/05/07/accepted PY - 2016/5/19/entrez PY - 2016/5/18/pubmed PY - 2016/12/28/medline KW - Ae. luteocephalus KW - Aedes aegypti KW - Benue state KW - Outbreak KW - Yellow fever SP - 18 EP - 25 JF - Acta tropica JO - Acta Trop VL - 161 N2 - Yellow fever (YF) is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas. In the past, there have been pockets of YF outbreaks in Nigeria that resulted in preventable deaths. Surveillance efforts towards avoiding another outbreak have been put in place with the aim of early detection and control. However, risk indices relating to the density of immature YF-mosquito vectors are given little consideration even though it is the first step in curbing a possible outbreak. Immature collections from 1538 houses in Ega, Oju, Otukpoicho and Otukpo in Benue State were carried out in 2010 and 2011. Risk indices such as house index (HI), container index (CI) and Breteau index (BI) were estimated. Molecular detection of YF was carried out on randomly selected Aedes larvae and pupae. Overall, 431,381 mosquitoes were collected in and around house premises. Thirteen species were identified: Ae. aegypti (Linneaus), Ae. africanus (Theobald), Ae. albopictus (Skuse), Ae. cumminsii (Theobald), Ae. luteocephalus (Newstead), Ae. simpsoni s.l. (Theobald), Ae. vittatus (Bigot), Anopheles gambiae Giles, An. nili (Theobald), Cx. nebulosus Theobald, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Lutzia tigripes (Grandpre and Charmoy) and Toxorhynchites brevipalpis Theobald. The HI, CI and BI for Ae. aegypti were high in all the study locations, but low for Ae. lueteocephalus except in Ega. With 50 immature Aedes mosquitoes screened across locations, only Ae. aegypti from Ega were positive for YF. This study places Ega on a high alert of an impending YF outbreak. Thus, urgent steps to clear this area of potential mosquito sites are highly recommended. SN - 1873-6254 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27189925/Entomological_assessment_of_yellow_fever_epidemic_risk_indices_in_Benue_State_Nigeria_2010_2011_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0001-706X(16)30258-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -