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Functional Selectivity of CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Ligands at a Canonical and Noncanonical Pathway.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2016 08; 358(2):342-51.JP

Abstract

The CB2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2) remains a tantalizing, but unrealized therapeutic target. CB2 receptor ligands belong to varied structural classes and display extreme functional selectivity. Here, we have screened diverse CB2 receptor ligands at canonical (inhibition of adenylyl cyclase) and noncanonical (arrestin recruitment) pathways. The nonclassic cannabinoid (-)-cis-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-trans-4-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexanol (CP55940) was the most potent agonist for both pathways, while the classic cannabinoid ligand (6aR,10aR)-3-(1,1-Dimethylbutyl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran JWH133) was the most efficacious agonist among all the ligands profiled in cyclase assays. In the cyclase assay, other classic cannabinoids showed little [(-)-trans-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and (-)-(6aR,7,10,10aR)-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol] (KM233) to no efficacy [(6aR,10aR)-1-methoxy-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromene(L759633) and (6aR,10aR)-3-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-6a,7,8,9,10,10a-hexahydro-1-methoxy-6,6-dimethyl-9-methylene-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran]L759656. Most aminoalkylindoles, including [(3R)-​2,​3-​dihydro-​5-​methyl-​3-​(4-​morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,​2,​3-​de]-​1,​4-​benzoxazin-​6-​yl]-​1-​naphthalenyl-​methanone,​ monomethanesulfonate (WIN55212-2), were moderate efficacy agonists. The cannabilactone 3-(1,1-dimethyl-heptyl)-1-hydroxy-9-methoxy-benzo(c)chromen-6-one (AM1710) was equiefficacious to CP55940 to inhibit adenylyl cyclase, albeit with lower potency. In the arrestin recruitment assays, all classic cannabinoid ligands failed to recruit arrestins, indicating a bias toward G-protein coupling for this class of compound. All aminoalkylindoles tested, except for WIN55212-2 and (1-​pentyl-​1H-​indol-​3-​yl)(2,​2,​3,​3-​tetramethylcyclopropyl)-​methanone (UR144), failed to recruit arrestin. WIN55212-2 was a low efficacy agonist for arrestin recruitment, while UR144 was arrestin biased with no significant inhibition of cyclase. Endocannabinoids were G-protein biased with no arrestin recruitment. The diarylpyrazole antagonist 5-​(4-​chloro-​3-​methylphenyl)-​1-​[(4-​methylphenyl)methyl]-​N-​[(1S,​2S,​4R)-​1,​3,​3-​trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-​2-​yl]-​1H-​pyrazole-​3-​carboxamide (SR144258) was an inverse agonist in cyclase and arrestin recruitment assays while the aminoalkylindole 6-iodo-2-methyl-1-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl](4-methoxyphenyl)methanone (AM630) and carboxamide N-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)-1,2-dihydro-7-methoxy-2-oxo-8-(pentyloxy)-3-quinolinecarboxamide (JTE907) were inverse agonists in cyclase but low efficacy agonists in arrestin recruitment assays. Thus, CB2 receptor ligands display strong and varied functional selectivity at both pathways. Therefore, extreme care must be exercised when using these compounds to infer the role of CB2 receptors in vivo.

Authors+Show Affiliations

The Gill Center for Biomolecular Science and the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.The Gill Center for Biomolecular Science and the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana kmackie@indiana.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27194477

Citation

Dhopeshwarkar, Amey, and Ken Mackie. "Functional Selectivity of CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Ligands at a Canonical and Noncanonical Pathway." The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 358, no. 2, 2016, pp. 342-51.
Dhopeshwarkar A, Mackie K. Functional Selectivity of CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Ligands at a Canonical and Noncanonical Pathway. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2016;358(2):342-51.
Dhopeshwarkar, A., & Mackie, K. (2016). Functional Selectivity of CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Ligands at a Canonical and Noncanonical Pathway. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 358(2), 342-51. https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.116.232561
Dhopeshwarkar A, Mackie K. Functional Selectivity of CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Ligands at a Canonical and Noncanonical Pathway. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2016;358(2):342-51. PubMed PMID: 27194477.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Functional Selectivity of CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Ligands at a Canonical and Noncanonical Pathway. AU - Dhopeshwarkar,Amey, AU - Mackie,Ken, Y1 - 2016/05/18/ PY - 2016/01/30/received PY - 2016/05/17/accepted PY - 2016/5/20/entrez PY - 2016/5/20/pubmed PY - 2017/5/27/medline SP - 342 EP - 51 JF - The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics JO - J Pharmacol Exp Ther VL - 358 IS - 2 N2 - The CB2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2) remains a tantalizing, but unrealized therapeutic target. CB2 receptor ligands belong to varied structural classes and display extreme functional selectivity. Here, we have screened diverse CB2 receptor ligands at canonical (inhibition of adenylyl cyclase) and noncanonical (arrestin recruitment) pathways. The nonclassic cannabinoid (-)-cis-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-trans-4-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexanol (CP55940) was the most potent agonist for both pathways, while the classic cannabinoid ligand (6aR,10aR)-3-(1,1-Dimethylbutyl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran JWH133) was the most efficacious agonist among all the ligands profiled in cyclase assays. In the cyclase assay, other classic cannabinoids showed little [(-)-trans-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and (-)-(6aR,7,10,10aR)-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol] (KM233) to no efficacy [(6aR,10aR)-1-methoxy-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromene(L759633) and (6aR,10aR)-3-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-6a,7,8,9,10,10a-hexahydro-1-methoxy-6,6-dimethyl-9-methylene-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran]L759656. Most aminoalkylindoles, including [(3R)-​2,​3-​dihydro-​5-​methyl-​3-​(4-​morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,​2,​3-​de]-​1,​4-​benzoxazin-​6-​yl]-​1-​naphthalenyl-​methanone,​ monomethanesulfonate (WIN55212-2), were moderate efficacy agonists. The cannabilactone 3-(1,1-dimethyl-heptyl)-1-hydroxy-9-methoxy-benzo(c)chromen-6-one (AM1710) was equiefficacious to CP55940 to inhibit adenylyl cyclase, albeit with lower potency. In the arrestin recruitment assays, all classic cannabinoid ligands failed to recruit arrestins, indicating a bias toward G-protein coupling for this class of compound. All aminoalkylindoles tested, except for WIN55212-2 and (1-​pentyl-​1H-​indol-​3-​yl)(2,​2,​3,​3-​tetramethylcyclopropyl)-​methanone (UR144), failed to recruit arrestin. WIN55212-2 was a low efficacy agonist for arrestin recruitment, while UR144 was arrestin biased with no significant inhibition of cyclase. Endocannabinoids were G-protein biased with no arrestin recruitment. The diarylpyrazole antagonist 5-​(4-​chloro-​3-​methylphenyl)-​1-​[(4-​methylphenyl)methyl]-​N-​[(1S,​2S,​4R)-​1,​3,​3-​trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-​2-​yl]-​1H-​pyrazole-​3-​carboxamide (SR144258) was an inverse agonist in cyclase and arrestin recruitment assays while the aminoalkylindole 6-iodo-2-methyl-1-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl](4-methoxyphenyl)methanone (AM630) and carboxamide N-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)-1,2-dihydro-7-methoxy-2-oxo-8-(pentyloxy)-3-quinolinecarboxamide (JTE907) were inverse agonists in cyclase but low efficacy agonists in arrestin recruitment assays. Thus, CB2 receptor ligands display strong and varied functional selectivity at both pathways. Therefore, extreme care must be exercised when using these compounds to infer the role of CB2 receptors in vivo. SN - 1521-0103 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27194477/Functional_Selectivity_of_CB2_Cannabinoid_Receptor_Ligands_at_a_Canonical_and_Noncanonical_Pathway_ L2 - https://jpet.aspetjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=27194477 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -