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The supplemental use of infant formula in the context of universal breastfeeding practices in Western Nepal.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

While the initiation of breastfeeding is universal in Nepal, little has been reported on formula feeding practices. This study aimed to report the prevalence of, and factors associated with, the use of infant formula as supplementary feeds in the Western region of Nepal.

METHODS

A community-based cohort study was conducted to collect infant feeding information among 735 postpartum mothers using structured questionnaires. Complete formula feeding data were collected from 711 women in the first, fourth and sixth month postpartum. Factors independently associated with formula feeding were investigated using multiple logistic regression.

RESULTS

All mothers were breastfeeding their infants at the time of recruitment. The prevalence of formula feeding was 7.5 % in the first month and 17 % in the sixth month. About a quarter of mothers (23.8 %) reported providing infant formula at least once during the first six months of life. Infant formula was used commonly as top-up food. Stepwise logistic regression showed that infants born to families residing in urban areas (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.14; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.37 to 3.33), mothers with higher education (aOR: 2.08; 95 % CI: 1.14 to 3.80), and infants born by caesarean section (aOR: 1.96; 95 % CI: 1.21 to 3.18) were at greater risk of formula feeding.

CONCLUSION

The current findings indicate that health workers should support mothers to initiate and continue exclusive breastfeeding particularly after caesarean deliveries. Furthermore, urban health programs in Nepal should incorporate breastfeeding programs which discourage the unnecessary use of formula feeding. The marketing of formula milk should be monitored more vigilantly especially in the aftermath of the April 2015 earthquakes or other natural disasters.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Nepal Development Society, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal. khanal.vishnu@gmail.com.

    ,

    School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.

    ,

    School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.

    ,

    School of Public Health and Community Medicine, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal.

    School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.

    Source

    BMC pediatrics 16: 2016 05 21 pg 68

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Breast Feeding
    Female
    Health Surveys
    Humans
    Infant
    Infant Care
    Infant Formula
    Infant, Newborn
    Logistic Models
    Longitudinal Studies
    Male
    Maternal Behavior
    Middle Aged
    Nepal
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    27206532

    Citation

    Khanal, Vishnu, et al. "The Supplemental Use of Infant Formula in the Context of Universal Breastfeeding Practices in Western Nepal." BMC Pediatrics, vol. 16, 2016, p. 68.
    Khanal V, Scott JA, Lee AH, et al. The supplemental use of infant formula in the context of universal breastfeeding practices in Western Nepal. BMC Pediatr. 2016;16:68.
    Khanal, V., Scott, J. A., Lee, A. H., Karkee, R., & Binns, C. W. (2016). The supplemental use of infant formula in the context of universal breastfeeding practices in Western Nepal. BMC Pediatrics, 16, p. 68. doi:10.1186/s12887-016-0602-1.
    Khanal V, et al. The Supplemental Use of Infant Formula in the Context of Universal Breastfeeding Practices in Western Nepal. BMC Pediatr. 2016 05 21;16:68. PubMed PMID: 27206532.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The supplemental use of infant formula in the context of universal breastfeeding practices in Western Nepal. AU - Khanal,Vishnu, AU - Scott,Jane A, AU - Lee,Andy H, AU - Karkee,Rajendra, AU - Binns,Colin W, Y1 - 2016/05/21/ PY - 2015/07/12/received PY - 2016/05/11/accepted PY - 2016/5/22/entrez PY - 2016/5/22/pubmed PY - 2017/11/3/medline KW - Baby formula KW - Breastfeeding KW - Cohort studies KW - Infant Formula KW - Infant food KW - Nepal KW - Urban Health SP - 68 EP - 68 JF - BMC pediatrics JO - BMC Pediatr VL - 16 N2 - BACKGROUND: While the initiation of breastfeeding is universal in Nepal, little has been reported on formula feeding practices. This study aimed to report the prevalence of, and factors associated with, the use of infant formula as supplementary feeds in the Western region of Nepal. METHODS: A community-based cohort study was conducted to collect infant feeding information among 735 postpartum mothers using structured questionnaires. Complete formula feeding data were collected from 711 women in the first, fourth and sixth month postpartum. Factors independently associated with formula feeding were investigated using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: All mothers were breastfeeding their infants at the time of recruitment. The prevalence of formula feeding was 7.5 % in the first month and 17 % in the sixth month. About a quarter of mothers (23.8 %) reported providing infant formula at least once during the first six months of life. Infant formula was used commonly as top-up food. Stepwise logistic regression showed that infants born to families residing in urban areas (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.14; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.37 to 3.33), mothers with higher education (aOR: 2.08; 95 % CI: 1.14 to 3.80), and infants born by caesarean section (aOR: 1.96; 95 % CI: 1.21 to 3.18) were at greater risk of formula feeding. CONCLUSION: The current findings indicate that health workers should support mothers to initiate and continue exclusive breastfeeding particularly after caesarean deliveries. Furthermore, urban health programs in Nepal should incorporate breastfeeding programs which discourage the unnecessary use of formula feeding. The marketing of formula milk should be monitored more vigilantly especially in the aftermath of the April 2015 earthquakes or other natural disasters. SN - 1471-2431 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27206532/The_supplemental_use_of_infant_formula_in_the_context_of_universal_breastfeeding_practices_in_Western_Nepal_ L2 - https://bmcpediatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12887-016-0602-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -