Levetiracetam for the prevention of busulfan-induced seizures in pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients.J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2017 Jul; 23(5):344-349.JO
Objective The objective of this study was to compare clinical outcomes in children undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation who received levetiracetam versus those who received phenytoin for the prevention of busulfan-induced seizures. Methods This study was an IRB-approved, single-center, retrospective analysis of pediatric patients receiving intravenous busulfan for hematopoietic cell transplantation conditioning from January 2009 to July 2014. The primary study endpoint was the incidence of seizure during busulfan administration (day -8 to 0). Key transplant related-outcomes were also collected, including the incidence of graft rejection, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, relapse, and death. Results A total of 20 patients met criteria for inclusion in the study. The population was heterogeneous with regard to the indication for hematopoietic cell transplantation, donor type, stem cell source, and conditioning regimen. Nine patients (45%) received levetiracetam and 11 (55%) received phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis. No seizures or graft rejections were observed in the study population. One relapse, one case of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, and two deaths occurred in the levetiracetam group, while no relapses, two cases of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, and one death occurred in the phenytoin group. Conclusion These data suggest similar safety and effectiveness between levetiracetam and phenytoin for the prevention of busulfan-induced seizures in a small, heterogeneous pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation population.