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A national examination of pharmacy-based immunization statutes and their association with influenza vaccinations and preventive health.
Vaccine. 2016 06 24; 34(30):3463-8.V

Abstract

BACKGROUND

A series of state-level statute changes have allowed pharmacists to provide influenza vaccinations in community pharmacies. The study aim was to estimate the effects of pharmacy-based immunization statutes changes on per capita influenza vaccine prescriptions, adult vaccination rates, and the utilization of other preventive health services.

METHODS

A quasi-experimental study that compares vaccination outcomes over time before and after states allowed pharmacy-based immunization. Measures of per capita pharmacy prescriptions for influenza vaccines in each state came from a proprietary pharmacy prescription database. Data on adult vaccination rates and preventive health utilization were studied using multiple waves of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The primary outcomes were changes in per capita influenza vaccine pharmacy prescriptions, adult vaccination rates, and preventive health interventions following changes.

RESULTS

Between 2007 and 2013, the number of influenza vaccinations dispensed in community pharmacies increased from 3.2 to 20.9 million. After one year, adopting pharmacist immunization statutes increased per capita influenza vaccine prescriptions by an absolute difference (AD) of 2.6% (95% CI: 1.1-4.2). Adopting statutes did not lead to a significant absolute increase in adult vaccination rates (AD 0.9%, 95% CI: -0.3, 2.2). There also was no observed difference in adult vaccination rates among adults at high-risk of influenza complications (AD 0.8%, 95% CI: -0.2, 1.8) or among standard demographic subgroups. There also was no observed difference in the receipt of preventive health services, including routine physician office visits (AD -1.9%, 95% CI: -4.9, 1.1).

CONCLUSIONS

Pharmacists are providing millions of influenza vaccines as a consequence of immunization statutes, but we do not observe significant differences in adult influenza vaccination rates. The main gains from pharmacy-based immunization may be in providing a more convenient way to obtain an important health service.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Providence Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Veterans Affairs, United States. Electronic address: kevin.mcconeghy2@va.gov.Indiana University, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, United States.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27219340

Citation

McConeghy, Kevin W., and Coady Wing. "A National Examination of Pharmacy-based Immunization Statutes and Their Association With Influenza Vaccinations and Preventive Health." Vaccine, vol. 34, no. 30, 2016, pp. 3463-8.
McConeghy KW, Wing C. A national examination of pharmacy-based immunization statutes and their association with influenza vaccinations and preventive health. Vaccine. 2016;34(30):3463-8.
McConeghy, K. W., & Wing, C. (2016). A national examination of pharmacy-based immunization statutes and their association with influenza vaccinations and preventive health. Vaccine, 34(30), 3463-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.04.076
McConeghy KW, Wing C. A National Examination of Pharmacy-based Immunization Statutes and Their Association With Influenza Vaccinations and Preventive Health. Vaccine. 2016 06 24;34(30):3463-8. PubMed PMID: 27219340.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A national examination of pharmacy-based immunization statutes and their association with influenza vaccinations and preventive health. AU - McConeghy,Kevin W, AU - Wing,Coady, Y1 - 2016/05/21/ PY - 2016/01/11/received PY - 2016/04/15/revised PY - 2016/04/25/accepted PY - 2016/5/25/entrez PY - 2016/5/25/pubmed PY - 2017/10/27/medline KW - Health care delivery KW - Immunization KW - Influenza KW - Pharmacist KW - Public health KW - Scope of practice statutes KW - Vaccine SP - 3463 EP - 8 JF - Vaccine JO - Vaccine VL - 34 IS - 30 N2 - BACKGROUND: A series of state-level statute changes have allowed pharmacists to provide influenza vaccinations in community pharmacies. The study aim was to estimate the effects of pharmacy-based immunization statutes changes on per capita influenza vaccine prescriptions, adult vaccination rates, and the utilization of other preventive health services. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study that compares vaccination outcomes over time before and after states allowed pharmacy-based immunization. Measures of per capita pharmacy prescriptions for influenza vaccines in each state came from a proprietary pharmacy prescription database. Data on adult vaccination rates and preventive health utilization were studied using multiple waves of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The primary outcomes were changes in per capita influenza vaccine pharmacy prescriptions, adult vaccination rates, and preventive health interventions following changes. RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2013, the number of influenza vaccinations dispensed in community pharmacies increased from 3.2 to 20.9 million. After one year, adopting pharmacist immunization statutes increased per capita influenza vaccine prescriptions by an absolute difference (AD) of 2.6% (95% CI: 1.1-4.2). Adopting statutes did not lead to a significant absolute increase in adult vaccination rates (AD 0.9%, 95% CI: -0.3, 2.2). There also was no observed difference in adult vaccination rates among adults at high-risk of influenza complications (AD 0.8%, 95% CI: -0.2, 1.8) or among standard demographic subgroups. There also was no observed difference in the receipt of preventive health services, including routine physician office visits (AD -1.9%, 95% CI: -4.9, 1.1). CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacists are providing millions of influenza vaccines as a consequence of immunization statutes, but we do not observe significant differences in adult influenza vaccination rates. The main gains from pharmacy-based immunization may be in providing a more convenient way to obtain an important health service. SN - 1873-2518 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27219340/A_national_examination_of_pharmacy_based_immunization_statutes_and_their_association_with_influenza_vaccinations_and_preventive_health_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264-410X(16)30241-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -