Prevalence of protein-energy wasting (PEW) and evaluation of diagnostic criteria in Japanese maintenance hemodialysis patients.Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2016; 25(2):292-9AP
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
The International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM) has recently recommended the use of the term "protein-energy wasting" (PEW). PEW is a state of malnutrition with decreased body stores of protein and energy fuel in hemodialysis patients and is known as a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. We examined the prevalence of PEW and the characteristics of PEW patients in a hemodialysis center in Japan.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN
Fifty-nine outpatients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis at Iga City General Hospital were evaluated. We observed their biochemical data, body composition, dietary intake, and the number of steps prospectively. PEW was defined according to ISRNM criteria.
Nine patients (15% of total) were diagnosed as having PEW. Among indicators of PEW criteria, the relevance ratios of "reduced muscle mass" and "unintentional low dietary energy intake" were significantly higher in PEW than in non-PEW. The number of steps was lower, and serum levels of glucose and C-reactive protein were higher in PEW.
About 15% of Japanese hemodialysis patients are estimated to have PEW. Our results suggested that major contributing factors to PEW were reduced muscle mass, unintentional low dietary energy intake, lower amount of exercise, insulin resistance, and chronic inflammation.