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Associations between Restrained Eating and the Size and Frequency of Overall Intake, Meal, Snack and Drink Occasions in the UK Adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(5):e0156320.Plos

Abstract

Obesity is a global public health priority. Restrained eating is related to obesity and total energy intake but associations with the eating patterns are unclear. We examined the associations of restrained eating with the size and frequency of intake occasions among 1213 British adult (19-64 y) participants in a cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2000. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire assessed restrained eating. Overall intake occasions were all energy consumed in a 60 min period. A food-based classification separated intake occasions into meals, snacks, or drinks from seven-day weighed food diaries. Average daily frequency and size (kcal) of overall intake, meal, snack and drink occasions were calculated and associations with restrained eating were modelled using multiple linear regression including under-reporting of energy intake, age, gender, BMI, emotional eating, external eating and physical activity as covariates. Restrained eating was very weakly positively correlated with overall intake (r = 0.08, p<0.05) and meal frequency (r = 0.10, p<0.05) but not snack or drink frequency (r = 0.02 and -0.02 respectively). Adjusted regressions showed a one-point change in restrained eating was associated with 0.07 (95% CI 0.03, 0.11) more meal occasions/day and 0.13 (95% CI 0.01, 0.25) extra overall intake occasions/day. Overall intake occasion size was weakly negatively correlated with restrained eating regardless of type (r = -0.16 to -0.20, all p<0.0001). Adjusted regressions showed each one-point increase in restrained eating was associated with lower-energy meals (-15 kcal 95% CI -5.9, -24.2) and drinks (-4 kcal 95%CI -0.1, -8), but not snacks or overall intake occasions. Among a national sample of UK adults, greater restrained eating was associated with smaller and slightly more frequent eating, suggesting that restrained eaters restrict their energy intake by reducing meal/drink size rather than skipping snacks.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centre for Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences, School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.Centre for Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences, School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27227409

Citation

Olea López, Ana Lorena, and Laura Johnson. "Associations Between Restrained Eating and the Size and Frequency of Overall Intake, Meal, Snack and Drink Occasions in the UK Adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey." PloS One, vol. 11, no. 5, 2016, pp. e0156320.
Olea López AL, Johnson L. Associations between Restrained Eating and the Size and Frequency of Overall Intake, Meal, Snack and Drink Occasions in the UK Adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey. PLoS One. 2016;11(5):e0156320.
Olea López, A. L., & Johnson, L. (2016). Associations between Restrained Eating and the Size and Frequency of Overall Intake, Meal, Snack and Drink Occasions in the UK Adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey. PloS One, 11(5), e0156320. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0156320
Olea López AL, Johnson L. Associations Between Restrained Eating and the Size and Frequency of Overall Intake, Meal, Snack and Drink Occasions in the UK Adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey. PLoS One. 2016;11(5):e0156320. PubMed PMID: 27227409.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Associations between Restrained Eating and the Size and Frequency of Overall Intake, Meal, Snack and Drink Occasions in the UK Adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey. AU - Olea López,Ana Lorena, AU - Johnson,Laura, Y1 - 2016/05/26/ PY - 2016/01/02/received PY - 2016/05/12/accepted PY - 2016/5/27/entrez PY - 2016/5/27/pubmed PY - 2017/7/28/medline SP - e0156320 EP - e0156320 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS One VL - 11 IS - 5 N2 - Obesity is a global public health priority. Restrained eating is related to obesity and total energy intake but associations with the eating patterns are unclear. We examined the associations of restrained eating with the size and frequency of intake occasions among 1213 British adult (19-64 y) participants in a cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2000. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire assessed restrained eating. Overall intake occasions were all energy consumed in a 60 min period. A food-based classification separated intake occasions into meals, snacks, or drinks from seven-day weighed food diaries. Average daily frequency and size (kcal) of overall intake, meal, snack and drink occasions were calculated and associations with restrained eating were modelled using multiple linear regression including under-reporting of energy intake, age, gender, BMI, emotional eating, external eating and physical activity as covariates. Restrained eating was very weakly positively correlated with overall intake (r = 0.08, p<0.05) and meal frequency (r = 0.10, p<0.05) but not snack or drink frequency (r = 0.02 and -0.02 respectively). Adjusted regressions showed a one-point change in restrained eating was associated with 0.07 (95% CI 0.03, 0.11) more meal occasions/day and 0.13 (95% CI 0.01, 0.25) extra overall intake occasions/day. Overall intake occasion size was weakly negatively correlated with restrained eating regardless of type (r = -0.16 to -0.20, all p<0.0001). Adjusted regressions showed each one-point increase in restrained eating was associated with lower-energy meals (-15 kcal 95% CI -5.9, -24.2) and drinks (-4 kcal 95%CI -0.1, -8), but not snacks or overall intake occasions. Among a national sample of UK adults, greater restrained eating was associated with smaller and slightly more frequent eating, suggesting that restrained eaters restrict their energy intake by reducing meal/drink size rather than skipping snacks. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27227409/Associations_between_Restrained_Eating_and_the_Size_and_Frequency_of_Overall_Intake_Meal_Snack_and_Drink_Occasions_in_the_UK_Adult_National_Diet_and_Nutrition_Survey_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0156320 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -