Psychological sequelae of war. A 3-year prospective study of Israeli combat stress reaction casualties.J Nerv Ment Dis. 1989 Jun; 177(6):342-6.JN
The long-term psychological sequelae of combat were assessed employing the Impact of Event Scale (IES) 1, 2, and 3 years after the 1982 Lebanon War. The following groups of Israeli veterans participated: combat stress reaction casualties (N = 213) and comparable controls (N = 116). For the purpose of the study, the subjects in each group were screened and further divided according to whether they did or did not suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results showed that elevated rates of distress were reported by both combat stress reaction and PTSD casualties at all three points in time. In both study groups the level of distress declined with time. Theoretical and methodological implications were discussed.