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Quantification of cannabinoids and their free and glucuronide metabolites in whole blood by disposable pipette extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
J Chromatogr A. 2016 Jul 01; 1453:34-42.JC

Abstract

Identifying recent cannabis intake is confounded by prolonged cannabinoid excretion in chronic frequent cannabis users. We previously observed detection times ≤2.1h for cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-glucuronide in whole blood after smoking, suggesting their applicability for identifying recent intake. However, whole blood collection may not occur for up to 4h during driving under the influence of drugs investigations, making a recent-use marker with a 6-8h detection window helpful for improving whole blood cannabinoid interpretation. Other minor cannabinoids cannabigerol (CBG), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and its metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THCV (THCVCOOH) might also be useful. We developed and validated a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of THC, its phase I and glucuronide phase II metabolites, and 5 five minor cannabinoids. Cannabinoids were extracted from 200μL whole blood via disposable pipette extraction, separated on a C18 column, and detected via electrospray ionization in negative mode with scheduled multiple reaction mass spectrometric monitoring. Linear ranges were 0.5-100μg/L for THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH); 0.5-50μg/L for 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), CBD, CBN, and THC-glucuronide; 1-50μg/L for CBG, THCV, and THCVCOOH; and 5-500μg/L for THCCOOH-glucuronide. Inter-day accuracy and precision at low, mid and high quality control (QC) concentrations were 95.1-113% and 2.4-8.5%, respectively (n=25). Extraction recoveries and matrix effects at low and high QC concentrations were 54.0-84.4% and -25.8-30.6%, respectively. By simultaneously monitoring multiple cannabinoids and metabolites, identification of recent cannabis administration or discrimination between licit medicinal and illicit recreational cannabis use can be improved.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, IRP, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address: KScheidweiler@intra.nida.nih.gov.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, IRP, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; Program in Toxicology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, IRP, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, IRP, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Validation Study

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27236483

Citation

Scheidweiler, Karl B., et al. "Quantification of Cannabinoids and Their Free and Glucuronide Metabolites in Whole Blood By Disposable Pipette Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry." Journal of Chromatography. A, vol. 1453, 2016, pp. 34-42.
Scheidweiler KB, Newmeyer MN, Barnes AJ, et al. Quantification of cannabinoids and their free and glucuronide metabolites in whole blood by disposable pipette extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2016;1453:34-42.
Scheidweiler, K. B., Newmeyer, M. N., Barnes, A. J., & Huestis, M. A. (2016). Quantification of cannabinoids and their free and glucuronide metabolites in whole blood by disposable pipette extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography. A, 1453, 34-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2016.05.024
Scheidweiler KB, et al. Quantification of Cannabinoids and Their Free and Glucuronide Metabolites in Whole Blood By Disposable Pipette Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2016 Jul 1;1453:34-42. PubMed PMID: 27236483.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Quantification of cannabinoids and their free and glucuronide metabolites in whole blood by disposable pipette extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. AU - Scheidweiler,Karl B, AU - Newmeyer,Matthew N, AU - Barnes,Allan J, AU - Huestis,Marilyn A, Y1 - 2016/05/07/ PY - 2015/12/31/received PY - 2016/04/28/revised PY - 2016/05/04/accepted PY - 2016/5/30/entrez PY - 2016/5/30/pubmed PY - 2016/12/31/medline KW - Cannabinoids KW - Disposable pipette extraction KW - Recent use markers KW - Whole blood SP - 34 EP - 42 JF - Journal of chromatography. A JO - J Chromatogr A VL - 1453 N2 - Identifying recent cannabis intake is confounded by prolonged cannabinoid excretion in chronic frequent cannabis users. We previously observed detection times ≤2.1h for cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-glucuronide in whole blood after smoking, suggesting their applicability for identifying recent intake. However, whole blood collection may not occur for up to 4h during driving under the influence of drugs investigations, making a recent-use marker with a 6-8h detection window helpful for improving whole blood cannabinoid interpretation. Other minor cannabinoids cannabigerol (CBG), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and its metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THCV (THCVCOOH) might also be useful. We developed and validated a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of THC, its phase I and glucuronide phase II metabolites, and 5 five minor cannabinoids. Cannabinoids were extracted from 200μL whole blood via disposable pipette extraction, separated on a C18 column, and detected via electrospray ionization in negative mode with scheduled multiple reaction mass spectrometric monitoring. Linear ranges were 0.5-100μg/L for THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH); 0.5-50μg/L for 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), CBD, CBN, and THC-glucuronide; 1-50μg/L for CBG, THCV, and THCVCOOH; and 5-500μg/L for THCCOOH-glucuronide. Inter-day accuracy and precision at low, mid and high quality control (QC) concentrations were 95.1-113% and 2.4-8.5%, respectively (n=25). Extraction recoveries and matrix effects at low and high QC concentrations were 54.0-84.4% and -25.8-30.6%, respectively. By simultaneously monitoring multiple cannabinoids and metabolites, identification of recent cannabis administration or discrimination between licit medicinal and illicit recreational cannabis use can be improved. SN - 1873-3778 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27236483/Quantification_of_cannabinoids_and_their_free_and_glucuronide_metabolites_in_whole_blood_by_disposable_pipette_extraction_and_liquid_chromatography_tandem_mass_spectrometry_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0021-9673(16)30600-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -