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Effects of aging and soil properties on zinc oxide nanoparticle availability and its ecotoxicological effects to the earthworm Eisenia andrei.
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2017 01; 36(1):137-146.ET

Abstract

To assess the influence of soil properties and aging on the availability and toxicity of zinc (Zn) applied as nanoparticles (Zn oxide [ZnO]-NPs) or as Zn2+ ions (Zn chloride [ZnCl2 ]), 3 natural soils were individually spiked with either ZnO-NPs or ZnCl2 and incubated for up to 6 mo. Available Zn concentrations in soil were measured by porewater extraction (ZnPW), whereas earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were exposed to study Zn bioavailability. Porewater extraction concentrations were lower when Zn was applied as NPs compared to the ionic form and decreased with increasing soil pH. For both Zn forms and Zn-PW values were affected by aging, but they varied among the tested soils, highlighting the influence of soil properties. Internal Zn concentration in the earthworms (ZnE) was highest for the soil with high organic carbon content (5.4%) and basic pH (7.6) spiked with Zn-NPs, but the same soil spiked with ZnCl2 showed the lowest increase in ZnE compared to the control. Survival, weight change, and reproduction of the earthworms were affected by both Zn forms; but differences in toxicity could not be explained by soil properties or aging. This shows that ZnO-NPs and ZnCl2 behave differently in soils depending on soil properties and aging processes, but differences in earthworm toxicity remain unexplained. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:137-146. © 2016 SETAC.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Soil Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster, United Kingdom.Department of Soil Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.Department of Ecological Science, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27254153

Citation

Romero-Freire, Ana, et al. "Effects of Aging and Soil Properties On Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Availability and Its Ecotoxicological Effects to the Earthworm Eisenia Andrei." Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 36, no. 1, 2017, pp. 137-146.
Romero-Freire A, Lofts S, Martín Peinado FJ, et al. Effects of aging and soil properties on zinc oxide nanoparticle availability and its ecotoxicological effects to the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2017;36(1):137-146.
Romero-Freire, A., Lofts, S., Martín Peinado, F. J., & van Gestel, C. A. (2017). Effects of aging and soil properties on zinc oxide nanoparticle availability and its ecotoxicological effects to the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 36(1), 137-146. https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.3512
Romero-Freire A, et al. Effects of Aging and Soil Properties On Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Availability and Its Ecotoxicological Effects to the Earthworm Eisenia Andrei. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2017;36(1):137-146. PubMed PMID: 27254153.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of aging and soil properties on zinc oxide nanoparticle availability and its ecotoxicological effects to the earthworm Eisenia andrei. AU - Romero-Freire,Ana, AU - Lofts,Stephen, AU - Martín Peinado,Francisco J, AU - van Gestel,Cornelis A M, Y1 - 2016/07/21/ PY - 2015/06/30/received PY - 2015/07/26/revised PY - 2016/05/26/accepted PY - 2016/6/3/pubmed PY - 2017/7/18/medline PY - 2016/6/3/entrez KW - Aging KW - Availability KW - Ecotoxicity KW - Nanoparticle KW - Zinc SP - 137 EP - 146 JF - Environmental toxicology and chemistry JO - Environ Toxicol Chem VL - 36 IS - 1 N2 - To assess the influence of soil properties and aging on the availability and toxicity of zinc (Zn) applied as nanoparticles (Zn oxide [ZnO]-NPs) or as Zn2+ ions (Zn chloride [ZnCl2 ]), 3 natural soils were individually spiked with either ZnO-NPs or ZnCl2 and incubated for up to 6 mo. Available Zn concentrations in soil were measured by porewater extraction (ZnPW), whereas earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were exposed to study Zn bioavailability. Porewater extraction concentrations were lower when Zn was applied as NPs compared to the ionic form and decreased with increasing soil pH. For both Zn forms and Zn-PW values were affected by aging, but they varied among the tested soils, highlighting the influence of soil properties. Internal Zn concentration in the earthworms (ZnE) was highest for the soil with high organic carbon content (5.4%) and basic pH (7.6) spiked with Zn-NPs, but the same soil spiked with ZnCl2 showed the lowest increase in ZnE compared to the control. Survival, weight change, and reproduction of the earthworms were affected by both Zn forms; but differences in toxicity could not be explained by soil properties or aging. This shows that ZnO-NPs and ZnCl2 behave differently in soils depending on soil properties and aging processes, but differences in earthworm toxicity remain unexplained. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:137-146. © 2016 SETAC. SN - 1552-8618 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27254153/Effects_of_aging_and_soil_properties_on_zinc_oxide_nanoparticle_availability_and_its_ecotoxicological_effects_to_the_earthworm_Eisenia_andrei_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.3512 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -