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Degradation of ethyl paraben by heat-activated persulfate oxidation: statistical evaluation of operating factors and transformation pathways.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Jan; 24(2):1073-1084.ES

Abstract

A factorial design methodology was implemented to evaluate the importance of ethyl paraben (EP) concentration (500-1500 μg/L), sodium persulfate concentration (400-500 mg/L), temperature (40-60 °C), reaction time (2-30 min), water matrix (pure water or secondary treated wastewater), and initial solution pH (3-9) on EP removal by heat-activated persulfate oxidation. All individual effects, except the solution pH, were statistically significant and so were the second-order interactions of ethyl paraben concentration with temperature or the reaction time. The influence of the water matrix was crucial, and the efficiency of the process was lower in secondary treated wastewater due to the presence of natural organic matter and inorganic salts that compete with ethyl paraben for the reactive oxygen species. Liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) was employed to identify major transformation by-products (TBPs); 13 compounds were detected as TBPs of EP. Degradation occurred through (i) hydroxylation, (ii) dealkylation, and (iii) oligomerization reactions leading to TBPs with ether and biphenyl structures. Oligomerization reactions were found to be the dominant pathway during the first steps of the reaction. The toxicity of 500 μg/L EP in secondary treated wastewater was tested against marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri; toxicity increased during the first minutes due to the production of several TBPs, but it consistently decreased thereafter.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Caratheodory 1, University Campus, 26504, Patras, Greece. zfrontistis@chemeng.upatras.gr.Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 2 Seferi St., 30100, Agrinio, Greece.Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110, Ioannina, Greece.Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Caratheodory 1, University Campus, 26504, Patras, Greece.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27255320

Citation

Frontistis, Zacharias, et al. "Degradation of Ethyl Paraben By Heat-activated Persulfate Oxidation: Statistical Evaluation of Operating Factors and Transformation Pathways." Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, vol. 24, no. 2, 2017, pp. 1073-1084.
Frontistis Z, Antonopoulou M, Konstantinou I, et al. Degradation of ethyl paraben by heat-activated persulfate oxidation: statistical evaluation of operating factors and transformation pathways. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24(2):1073-1084.
Frontistis, Z., Antonopoulou, M., Konstantinou, I., & Mantzavinos, D. (2017). Degradation of ethyl paraben by heat-activated persulfate oxidation: statistical evaluation of operating factors and transformation pathways. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 24(2), 1073-1084. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-6974-9
Frontistis Z, et al. Degradation of Ethyl Paraben By Heat-activated Persulfate Oxidation: Statistical Evaluation of Operating Factors and Transformation Pathways. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24(2):1073-1084. PubMed PMID: 27255320.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Degradation of ethyl paraben by heat-activated persulfate oxidation: statistical evaluation of operating factors and transformation pathways. AU - Frontistis,Zacharias, AU - Antonopoulou,Maria, AU - Konstantinou,Ioannis, AU - Mantzavinos,Dionissios, Y1 - 2016/06/03/ PY - 2016/03/24/received PY - 2016/05/24/accepted PY - 2016/6/4/pubmed PY - 2017/4/6/medline PY - 2016/6/4/entrez KW - By-products KW - Factorial design KW - Mechanism KW - Parabens KW - Sulfate radicals KW - Thermal activation SP - 1073 EP - 1084 JF - Environmental science and pollution research international JO - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int VL - 24 IS - 2 N2 - A factorial design methodology was implemented to evaluate the importance of ethyl paraben (EP) concentration (500-1500 μg/L), sodium persulfate concentration (400-500 mg/L), temperature (40-60 °C), reaction time (2-30 min), water matrix (pure water or secondary treated wastewater), and initial solution pH (3-9) on EP removal by heat-activated persulfate oxidation. All individual effects, except the solution pH, were statistically significant and so were the second-order interactions of ethyl paraben concentration with temperature or the reaction time. The influence of the water matrix was crucial, and the efficiency of the process was lower in secondary treated wastewater due to the presence of natural organic matter and inorganic salts that compete with ethyl paraben for the reactive oxygen species. Liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) was employed to identify major transformation by-products (TBPs); 13 compounds were detected as TBPs of EP. Degradation occurred through (i) hydroxylation, (ii) dealkylation, and (iii) oligomerization reactions leading to TBPs with ether and biphenyl structures. Oligomerization reactions were found to be the dominant pathway during the first steps of the reaction. The toxicity of 500 μg/L EP in secondary treated wastewater was tested against marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri; toxicity increased during the first minutes due to the production of several TBPs, but it consistently decreased thereafter. SN - 1614-7499 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27255320/Degradation_of_ethyl_paraben_by_heat_activated_persulfate_oxidation:_statistical_evaluation_of_operating_factors_and_transformation_pathways_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-6974-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -