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Incidence of thyroid diseases in Zhejiang Province, China, after 15 years of salt iodization.
J Trace Elem Med Biol 2016; 36:57-64JT

Abstract

Thyroid diseases(TD) can be induced by either deficient or excessive iodine intake. Universal Salt Iodization(USI) program has been implemented in China since 1995, to prevent iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). To evaluate the current conditions of TD and the role of USI, a multi-stage stratified random sampling scheme was used to perform a cross-sectional survey on the incidence of TD among participants in 6600 households in Zhejiang Province, a coastal area in China. Iodine nutrition status of the population was assessed by dietary iodine intake recall and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the participants, and TD were diagnosed by thyroid ultrasonography for 15122 participants and for 5873 participants by serum criteria for thyroid function(fT3, fT4, TSH, TRAb, TgAb, TPOAb; see Introduction for abbreviations). The median UIC of the surveyed population was 163μg iodine/L. From the participants 23.2% had UIC<100μg/L which is moderately iodine-deficient according to WHO classification. Diffuse goiter was present in 2.3% of the population and thyroid nodule in 20.9%. The incidence of hyperthyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, Graves' disease and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis was 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.6%, 7.8%, 0.2% and 0.3%, respectively. The proportion of several TD for participants with non-iodized salt intake was higher than that for participants with iodized salt intake.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 3399 Binshen Road, Hangzhou 310051, China.Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 3399 Binshen Road, Hangzhou 310051, China. Electronic address: zgzjcdc@sina.com.Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 3399 Binshen Road, Hangzhou 310051, China. Electronic address: zgzjscdc@sina.com.Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 3399 Binshen Road, Hangzhou 310051, China. Electronic address: woyanlidiyi@sina.com.Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 3399 Binshen Road, Hangzhou 310051, China. Electronic address: duokanduoji@sina.com.Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 3399 Binshen Road, Hangzhou 310051, China. Electronic address: 906561622@qq.com.Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 3399 Binshen Road, Hangzhou 310051, China. Electronic address: 150081832@qq.com.Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 3399 Binshen Road, Hangzhou 310051, China. Electronic address: mgm888@sina.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27259353

Citation

Gu, Fang, et al. "Incidence of Thyroid Diseases in Zhejiang Province, China, After 15 Years of Salt Iodization." Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology : Organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS), vol. 36, 2016, pp. 57-64.
Gu F, Ding G, Lou X, et al. Incidence of thyroid diseases in Zhejiang Province, China, after 15 years of salt iodization. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2016;36:57-64.
Gu, F., Ding, G., Lou, X., Wang, X., Mo, Z., Zhu, W., ... Mao, G. (2016). Incidence of thyroid diseases in Zhejiang Province, China, after 15 years of salt iodization. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology : Organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS), 36, pp. 57-64. doi:10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.04.003.
Gu F, et al. Incidence of Thyroid Diseases in Zhejiang Province, China, After 15 Years of Salt Iodization. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2016;36:57-64. PubMed PMID: 27259353.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Incidence of thyroid diseases in Zhejiang Province, China, after 15 years of salt iodization. AU - Gu,Fang, AU - Ding,Gangqiang, AU - Lou,Xiaoming, AU - Wang,Xiaofeng, AU - Mo,Zhe, AU - Zhu,Wenming, AU - Zhou,Jinshui, AU - Mao,Guangming, Y1 - 2016/04/06/ PY - 2014/08/29/received PY - 2016/04/01/revised PY - 2016/04/05/accepted PY - 2016/6/5/entrez PY - 2016/6/5/pubmed PY - 2017/4/25/medline KW - Diffuse goiter KW - Iodine intake KW - Subclinical hypothyroidism KW - Thyroid nodule KW - Universal salt iodization (USI) KW - Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) SP - 57 EP - 64 JF - Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS) JO - J Trace Elem Med Biol VL - 36 N2 - Thyroid diseases(TD) can be induced by either deficient or excessive iodine intake. Universal Salt Iodization(USI) program has been implemented in China since 1995, to prevent iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). To evaluate the current conditions of TD and the role of USI, a multi-stage stratified random sampling scheme was used to perform a cross-sectional survey on the incidence of TD among participants in 6600 households in Zhejiang Province, a coastal area in China. Iodine nutrition status of the population was assessed by dietary iodine intake recall and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the participants, and TD were diagnosed by thyroid ultrasonography for 15122 participants and for 5873 participants by serum criteria for thyroid function(fT3, fT4, TSH, TRAb, TgAb, TPOAb; see Introduction for abbreviations). The median UIC of the surveyed population was 163μg iodine/L. From the participants 23.2% had UIC<100μg/L which is moderately iodine-deficient according to WHO classification. Diffuse goiter was present in 2.3% of the population and thyroid nodule in 20.9%. The incidence of hyperthyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, Graves' disease and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis was 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.6%, 7.8%, 0.2% and 0.3%, respectively. The proportion of several TD for participants with non-iodized salt intake was higher than that for participants with iodized salt intake. SN - 1878-3252 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27259353/Incidence_of_thyroid_diseases_in_Zhejiang_Province_China_after_15_years_of_salt_iodization_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0946-672X(16)30057-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -