Impact of molybdenum nanoparticles on survival, activity of enzymes, and chemical elements in Eisenia fetida using test on artificial substrata.Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Sep; 23(18):18099-110.ES
The influence of molybdenum oxide nanoparticles (MoO3) on the growth and survival of Eisenia fetida was established. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and changes in concentration of molybdenum in the body of E. fetida were determined. The degree of bacterial bioluminescence inhibition in extracts of substrates and worm was studied using luminescent strain Escherichia coli K12 TG1. The enzymatic activity of substrates before and after exposure with nanoparticles and worms was assessed. Nanoparticles have concentrations of 10, 40, and 500 mg/kg of dry matter, and substrata are made of artificial soil (substrate A) and microcrystalline cellulose (substrate B). Spherical nanoparticles MoO3, yellow in color, with size 92 ± 0.3 nm, Z-potential 42 ± 0.52 mV, molybdenum content 99.8 mass/%, and specific area 12 m(2)/g were used in the study. A significant decrease by 23.3 % in weight was registered (for MoO3 NPs at 500 mg/kg) on substrate A (p ≤ 0.05). On substrate B, the maximum decrease in weight by 20.5, 33.3, and 16.9 % (p ≤ 0.05) was registered at a dose of 10, 40, and 500 mg/kg, respectively; mortality was from 6.6 to 73 %. After the assessment of bacterial bioluminescence inhibition in substrates A and B (extracts) and before worms were put, the toxicity of substrates was established at doses of 40 and 500 mg/kg, expressed in inhibitory concentration (IC) 30 and IC 50 values. Comparatively, on days 7 and 14, after exposure in the presence of E. fetida, no inhibition of bioluminescence was registered in extracts of substrates A and B, indicating the reduction in toxicity of substrates. The initial content of molybdenum in E. fetida was 0.9 ± 0.018 mg/kg of dry matter. The degree of molybdenum accumulation in worm tissue was dependent on the dose and substrate quality. In particular, 2-7 mg/kg of molybdenum accumulated from substrate A, while up to 15 kg/kg of molybdenum accumulated from substrate B (day 7). Molybdenum concentration decreased by 64.8 and 57.4 % at doses 40 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, on day 14. The reaction of antioxidant enzymes was shown in an insignificant increase of glutathione reductase (GSR) and catalase (CAT) at concentrations of 10 and 40 mg/kg in substrate A, followed by the subsequent reduction of their activity at the dose of 500 mg/kg MoO3. The activity of GSR in substrate B against the presence of MoO3 nanoparticles decreased, with significant difference of 33.5 % (p ≤ 0.05) at the dose of 500 mg/kg compared with untreated soil. In experiments with substrate A, an increase of catalase activity was registered for the control sample. The presence of MoO3 nanoparticles at the concentration of 10 mg/kg in the environment promoted enzymatic activity on days 7 and 14, respectively. A further increase of nanoparticle concentration resulted in the decrease of catalase activity with a minimum value at the concentration of MoO3 of 500 mg/kg. In the experiment with substrate B at the concentration of MoO3 nanoparticles of 40 mg/kg, enzymatic activity increases on day 7 of exposure. However, the stimulating effect of nanoparticles stops by day 14 of the experiment and further catalase activity is dose dependent with the smallest value in the experiment with MoO3 having the concentration of 500 mg/kg.