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Black ginseng extract exerts anti-hyperglycemic effect via modulation of glucose metabolism in liver and muscle.
J Ethnopharmacol 2016; 190:231-40JE

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE

Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, Araliaceae) has been used as a traditional medicine for thousands of years for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including diabetes. Processed ginseng named Black ginseng exhibits more potent biological activities than white and red ginseng. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of black ginseng extract (GBG05-FF) on hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Black ginseng was produced by a repeated steaming and drying process, subsequent extraction with 70% ethanol, filtration, and lyophilization. The effect of GBG05-FF on glucose uptake and related protein expression and phosphorylation were determined in C2C12 cells. Furthermore, we evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of GBG05-FF in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

RESULTS

GBG05-FF significantly (p<0.05) increased glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes via AMPK, Sirt1 and PI3-K pathway. In addition, GBG05-FF improved the fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance in STZ-induced diabetic mice. GBG05-FF decreased blood parameters such as glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride and total cholesterol. Quantitative RT-PCR assay revealed that in the STZ-induced diabetic mice treated with GBG05-FF, the expression of hepatic genes involved in gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase)), glycogenolysis (liver glycogen phosphorylase (LGP)) and glycogenesis (glycogen synthase (GS)) was suppressed, while the expression of the genes involved in glucose uptake (glucose transporter (GLUT) 1, GLUT4) and β-oxidation (acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a (CPT1a), mitochondrial medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)) in muscle were increased. GBG05-FF delayed diabetes-associated muscle atrophy by activating mTOR. The major bioactive compounds including ginsenoside Rg1, Rg3(S), Rg3(R), Rg5, Rk1 and Rh4 were evaluated for glucose uptake effect in C2C12 myotubes; the data indicated that Rh4 significantly (p<0.05) increased glucose uptake.

CONCLUSION

Collectively, the results suggested that GBG05-FF is a potentially useful agent for treatment of diabetes by increasing glucose uptake.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Oriental Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy and Wonkwang-Oriental Medicines Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Republic of Korea.International Ginseng and Herb Research Institute, Geumsan, 312-804, Republic of Korea.Department of Oriental Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy and Wonkwang-Oriental Medicines Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Republic of Korea.Department of Oriental Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy and Wonkwang-Oriental Medicines Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Republic of Korea.Department of Oriental Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy and Wonkwang-Oriental Medicines Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Republic of Korea.International Ginseng and Herb Research Institute, Geumsan, 312-804, Republic of Korea.Department of Oriental Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy and Wonkwang-Oriental Medicines Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: sssimi@wku.ac.kr.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27260409

Citation

Seo, Yun-Soo, et al. "Black Ginseng Extract Exerts Anti-hyperglycemic Effect Via Modulation of Glucose Metabolism in Liver and Muscle." Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 190, 2016, pp. 231-40.
Seo YS, Shon MY, Kong R, et al. Black ginseng extract exerts anti-hyperglycemic effect via modulation of glucose metabolism in liver and muscle. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;190:231-40.
Seo, Y. S., Shon, M. Y., Kong, R., Kang, O. H., Zhou, T., Kim, D. Y., & Kwon, D. Y. (2016). Black ginseng extract exerts anti-hyperglycemic effect via modulation of glucose metabolism in liver and muscle. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 190, pp. 231-40. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2016.05.060.
Seo YS, et al. Black Ginseng Extract Exerts Anti-hyperglycemic Effect Via Modulation of Glucose Metabolism in Liver and Muscle. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Aug 22;190:231-40. PubMed PMID: 27260409.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Black ginseng extract exerts anti-hyperglycemic effect via modulation of glucose metabolism in liver and muscle. AU - Seo,Yun-Soo, AU - Shon,Mi-Yae, AU - Kong,Ryong, AU - Kang,Ok-Hwa, AU - Zhou,Tian, AU - Kim,Do-Yeon, AU - Kwon,Dong-Yeul, Y1 - 2016/05/31/ PY - 2015/12/25/received PY - 2016/04/29/revised PY - 2016/05/29/accepted PY - 2016/6/5/entrez PY - 2016/6/5/pubmed PY - 2017/4/19/medline KW - Black ginseng KW - Diabetes mellitus KW - Glucose tolerance KW - Insulin signaling KW - Skeletal muscle SP - 231 EP - 40 JF - Journal of ethnopharmacology JO - J Ethnopharmacol VL - 190 N2 - ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, Araliaceae) has been used as a traditional medicine for thousands of years for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including diabetes. Processed ginseng named Black ginseng exhibits more potent biological activities than white and red ginseng. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of black ginseng extract (GBG05-FF) on hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Black ginseng was produced by a repeated steaming and drying process, subsequent extraction with 70% ethanol, filtration, and lyophilization. The effect of GBG05-FF on glucose uptake and related protein expression and phosphorylation were determined in C2C12 cells. Furthermore, we evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of GBG05-FF in STZ-induced diabetic mice. RESULTS: GBG05-FF significantly (p<0.05) increased glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes via AMPK, Sirt1 and PI3-K pathway. In addition, GBG05-FF improved the fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance in STZ-induced diabetic mice. GBG05-FF decreased blood parameters such as glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride and total cholesterol. Quantitative RT-PCR assay revealed that in the STZ-induced diabetic mice treated with GBG05-FF, the expression of hepatic genes involved in gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase)), glycogenolysis (liver glycogen phosphorylase (LGP)) and glycogenesis (glycogen synthase (GS)) was suppressed, while the expression of the genes involved in glucose uptake (glucose transporter (GLUT) 1, GLUT4) and β-oxidation (acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a (CPT1a), mitochondrial medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)) in muscle were increased. GBG05-FF delayed diabetes-associated muscle atrophy by activating mTOR. The major bioactive compounds including ginsenoside Rg1, Rg3(S), Rg3(R), Rg5, Rk1 and Rh4 were evaluated for glucose uptake effect in C2C12 myotubes; the data indicated that Rh4 significantly (p<0.05) increased glucose uptake. CONCLUSION: Collectively, the results suggested that GBG05-FF is a potentially useful agent for treatment of diabetes by increasing glucose uptake. SN - 1872-7573 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27260409/Black_ginseng_extract_exerts_anti_hyperglycemic_effect_via_modulation_of_glucose_metabolism_in_liver_and_muscle_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378-8741(16)30340-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -