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A randomized, crossover, head-to-head comparison of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation to reduce inflammation markers in men and women: the Comparing EPA to DHA (ComparED) Study.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Aug; 104(2):280-7.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

To date, most studies on the anti-inflammatory effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans have used a mixture of the 2 fatty acids in various forms and proportions.

OBJECTIVES

We compared the effects of EPA supplementation with those of DHA supplementation (re-esterified triacylglycerol; 90% pure) on inflammation markers (primary outcome) and blood lipids (secondary outcome) in men and women at risk of cardiovascular disease.

DESIGN

In a double-blind, randomized, crossover, controlled study, healthy men (n = 48) and women (n = 106) with abdominal obesity and low-grade systemic inflammation consumed 3 g/d of the following supplements for periods of 10 wk: 1) EPA (2.7 g/d), 2) DHA (2.7 g/d), and 3) corn oil as a control with each supplementation separated by a 9-wk washout period. Primary analyses assessed the difference in cardiometabolic outcomes between EPA and DHA.

RESULTS

Supplementation with DHA compared with supplementation with EPA led to a greater reduction in interleukin-18 (IL-18) (-7.0% ± 2.8% compared with -0.5% ± 3.0%, respectively; P = 0.01) and a greater increase in adiponectin (3.1% ± 1.6% compared with -1.2% ± 1.7%, respectively; P < 0.001). Between DHA and EPA, changes in CRP (-7.9% ± 5.0% compared with -1.8% ± 6.5%, respectively; P = 0.25), IL-6 (-12.0% ± 7.0% compared with -13.4% ± 7.0%, respectively; P = 0.86), and tumor necrosis factor-α (-14.8% ± 5.1% compared with -7.6% ± 10.2%, respectively; P = 0.63) were NS. DHA compared with EPA led to more pronounced reductions in triglycerides (-13.3% ± 2.3% compared with -11.9% ± 2.2%, respectively; P = 0.005) and the cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio (-2.5% ± 1.3% compared with 0.3% ± 1.1%, respectively; P = 0.006) and greater increases in HDL cholesterol (7.6% ± 1.4% compared with -0.7% ± 1.1%, respectively; P < 0.0001) and LDL cholesterol (6.9% ± 1.8% compared with 2.2% ± 1.6%, respectively; P = 0.04). The increase in LDL-cholesterol concentrations for DHA compared with EPA was significant in men but not in women (P-treatment × sex interaction = 0.046).

CONCLUSIONS

DHA is more effective than EPA in modulating specific markers of inflammation as well as blood lipids. Additional studies are needed to determine the effect of a long-term DHA supplementation per se on cardiovascular disease risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01810003.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Pavillon des Services.Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Pavillon des Services, University Hospital Center (CHU) of Québec Research Center, and.Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Pavillon des Services.Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Pavillon des Services.Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Pavillon des Services.Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Pavillon des Services.University Hospital Center (CHU) of Québec Research Center, and Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, Quebec, Canada; and.Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Pavillon des Services, University Hospital Center (CHU) of Québec Research Center, and Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Quebec, Canada.Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Pavillon des Services, benoit.lamarche@fsaa.ulaval.ca.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27281302

Citation

Allaire, Janie, et al. "A Randomized, Crossover, Head-to-head Comparison of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation to Reduce Inflammation Markers in Men and Women: the Comparing EPA to DHA (ComparED) Study." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 104, no. 2, 2016, pp. 280-7.
Allaire J, Couture P, Leclerc M, et al. A randomized, crossover, head-to-head comparison of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation to reduce inflammation markers in men and women: the Comparing EPA to DHA (ComparED) Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104(2):280-7.
Allaire, J., Couture, P., Leclerc, M., Charest, A., Marin, J., Lépine, M. C., Talbot, D., Tchernof, A., & Lamarche, B. (2016). A randomized, crossover, head-to-head comparison of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation to reduce inflammation markers in men and women: the Comparing EPA to DHA (ComparED) Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 104(2), 280-7. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.131896
Allaire J, et al. A Randomized, Crossover, Head-to-head Comparison of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation to Reduce Inflammation Markers in Men and Women: the Comparing EPA to DHA (ComparED) Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104(2):280-7. PubMed PMID: 27281302.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A randomized, crossover, head-to-head comparison of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation to reduce inflammation markers in men and women: the Comparing EPA to DHA (ComparED) Study. AU - Allaire,Janie, AU - Couture,Patrick, AU - Leclerc,Myriam, AU - Charest,Amélie, AU - Marin,Johanne, AU - Lépine,Marie-Claude, AU - Talbot,Denis, AU - Tchernof,André, AU - Lamarche,Benoît, Y1 - 2016/06/08/ PY - 2016/02/01/received PY - 2016/05/02/accepted PY - 2016/6/10/entrez PY - 2016/6/10/pubmed PY - 2017/6/1/medline KW - DHA KW - EPA KW - inflammation KW - men and women KW - randomized controlled trial KW - risk factors SP - 280 EP - 7 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 104 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: To date, most studies on the anti-inflammatory effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans have used a mixture of the 2 fatty acids in various forms and proportions. OBJECTIVES: We compared the effects of EPA supplementation with those of DHA supplementation (re-esterified triacylglycerol; 90% pure) on inflammation markers (primary outcome) and blood lipids (secondary outcome) in men and women at risk of cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: In a double-blind, randomized, crossover, controlled study, healthy men (n = 48) and women (n = 106) with abdominal obesity and low-grade systemic inflammation consumed 3 g/d of the following supplements for periods of 10 wk: 1) EPA (2.7 g/d), 2) DHA (2.7 g/d), and 3) corn oil as a control with each supplementation separated by a 9-wk washout period. Primary analyses assessed the difference in cardiometabolic outcomes between EPA and DHA. RESULTS: Supplementation with DHA compared with supplementation with EPA led to a greater reduction in interleukin-18 (IL-18) (-7.0% ± 2.8% compared with -0.5% ± 3.0%, respectively; P = 0.01) and a greater increase in adiponectin (3.1% ± 1.6% compared with -1.2% ± 1.7%, respectively; P < 0.001). Between DHA and EPA, changes in CRP (-7.9% ± 5.0% compared with -1.8% ± 6.5%, respectively; P = 0.25), IL-6 (-12.0% ± 7.0% compared with -13.4% ± 7.0%, respectively; P = 0.86), and tumor necrosis factor-α (-14.8% ± 5.1% compared with -7.6% ± 10.2%, respectively; P = 0.63) were NS. DHA compared with EPA led to more pronounced reductions in triglycerides (-13.3% ± 2.3% compared with -11.9% ± 2.2%, respectively; P = 0.005) and the cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio (-2.5% ± 1.3% compared with 0.3% ± 1.1%, respectively; P = 0.006) and greater increases in HDL cholesterol (7.6% ± 1.4% compared with -0.7% ± 1.1%, respectively; P < 0.0001) and LDL cholesterol (6.9% ± 1.8% compared with 2.2% ± 1.6%, respectively; P = 0.04). The increase in LDL-cholesterol concentrations for DHA compared with EPA was significant in men but not in women (P-treatment × sex interaction = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: DHA is more effective than EPA in modulating specific markers of inflammation as well as blood lipids. Additional studies are needed to determine the effect of a long-term DHA supplementation per se on cardiovascular disease risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01810003. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27281302/A_randomized_crossover_head_to_head_comparison_of_eicosapentaenoic_acid_and_docosahexaenoic_acid_supplementation_to_reduce_inflammation_markers_in_men_and_women:_the_Comparing_EPA_to_DHA__ComparED__Study_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.116.131896 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -