Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Risk in Patients with Advanced CKD.Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016 07 07; 11(7):1163-72.CJ
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
The high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature death in patients with CKD associates with a plethora of elevated circulating biomarkers that may reflect distinct signaling pathways or simply, are epiphenomena of CKD. We compared the predictive strength of 12 biomarkers analyzed concomitantly in patients with stage 5 CKD.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS
From 1994 to 2014, 543 patients with stage 5 CKD (median age =56 years old; 63% men; 199 patients had CVD) took part in our study on malnutrition, inflammation, and CVD in incident dialysis patients. Circulating levels of albumin, ferritin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), IGF-1, IL-6, orosomucoid, troponin T (TnT), TNF, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule, soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), and platelet and white blood cell (WBC) counts were analyzed as predictors of the presence of clinically overt CVD at baseline, protein-energy wasting (PEW), and subsequent all-cause mortality. During follow-up for a median of 28 months, there were 149 deaths, 81 of which were caused by CVD.
Most biomarkers were elevated compared with reference values and--except for albumin, ferritin, and IGF-1-higher in patients with CVD. In receiver operating characteristic analysis, age, IL-6, TnT, hsCRP, and IGF-1 were classifiers of baseline CVD and predictors of all-cause mortality. In addition to age, diabetes mellitus, smoking (for CVD), and PEW, only IL-6, relative risk (RR) 1.10 and 95% confidence interval ([95% CI], 1.02 to 1.19), sVCAM-1 RR 1.09 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.17), and serum albumin RR 0.89 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.95) associated with baseline CVD, and only WBC, hazard ratio (HR) 1.94 (95% CI, 1.34 to 2.82), IL-6 HR 1.79 (95% CI, 1.20 to 2.67), and TNF HR 0.65 (95% CI, 0.44 to 0.97) predicted all-cause mortality.
In addition to age and comorbidities, only IL-6, sVCAM-1, and albumin could-independently of other biomarkers-classify clinical CVD, and only IL-6, WBC, and TNF could-independently of other biomarkers-predict all-cause mortality risk. These data underscore the robustness of IL-6 as a classifier of clinically overt CVD and predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with stage 5 CKD.