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Adolescent Snacking Behaviors Are Associated with Dietary Intake and Weight Status.
J Nutr. 2016 07; 146(7):1348-55.JN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Most adolescents consume ≥1 snack/d; exploring the relevance of snacking patterns for overall diet and weight status is important to guide dietary counseling and public health strategies for obesity prevention.

OBJECTIVE

This study examined intake of common energy-dense snack foods, total number of snacks consumed, frequency of consuming snacks prepared away from home, and frequency of snacking while watching television in adolescents and how these behaviors may be linked to diet and weight status. Relations were examined with attention to potential confounders that may help explain the mixed findings of previous research.

METHODS

Survey measures of snacking behavior, a food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were completed by 2793 adolescents (53.2% girls, mean age = 14.4 y) in Minneapolis-St. Paul school classrooms in 2009-2010. Linear regression was used to examine associations with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and other potential confounding factors, such as meal skipping, underreporting energy intake, dieting to lose weight, and physical activity.

RESULTS

Adolescents reported consuming a mean of 2.2 energy-dense snack food servings/d and 4.3 snacks/d and purchasing snacks prepared away from home on 3.2 occasions/wk. More than two-thirds of adolescents reported that they sometimes, usually, or always consumed a snack while watching television. The measures of snacking were directly associated (P < 0.01) with higher energy, lower fruit/vegetable, higher sugar-sweetened beverage, and more frequent fast-food intakes in all models except for one: energy-dense snack food servings were not related to sugar-sweetened beverage intake. A direct relation between daily servings of energy-dense snack foods and body mass index (BMI) z score was found; however, the snacking behaviors were inversely related to BMI z score (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

The observed cross-sectional associations suggest that snack consumption is a risk factor for poor diet, but unless energy-dense foods are consumed, snacking does not consistently contribute to overweight in US adolescents.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; and larsonn@umn.edu.Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; and.Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; and.Global Health and Community and Family Medicine, Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC.Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; and.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27281807

Citation

Larson, Nicole I., et al. "Adolescent Snacking Behaviors Are Associated With Dietary Intake and Weight Status." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 146, no. 7, 2016, pp. 1348-55.
Larson NI, Miller JM, Watts AW, et al. Adolescent Snacking Behaviors Are Associated with Dietary Intake and Weight Status. J Nutr. 2016;146(7):1348-55.
Larson, N. I., Miller, J. M., Watts, A. W., Story, M. T., & Neumark-Sztainer, D. R. (2016). Adolescent Snacking Behaviors Are Associated with Dietary Intake and Weight Status. The Journal of Nutrition, 146(7), 1348-55. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.116.230334
Larson NI, et al. Adolescent Snacking Behaviors Are Associated With Dietary Intake and Weight Status. J Nutr. 2016;146(7):1348-55. PubMed PMID: 27281807.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Adolescent Snacking Behaviors Are Associated with Dietary Intake and Weight Status. AU - Larson,Nicole I, AU - Miller,Jonathan M, AU - Watts,Allison W, AU - Story,Mary T, AU - Neumark-Sztainer,Dianne R, Y1 - 2016/06/08/ PY - 2016/01/27/received PY - 2016/04/15/accepted PY - 2016/6/10/entrez PY - 2016/6/10/pubmed PY - 2017/6/16/medline KW - adolescents KW - dietary quality KW - fast-food restaurants KW - snacking KW - weight status SP - 1348 EP - 55 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J Nutr VL - 146 IS - 7 N2 - BACKGROUND: Most adolescents consume ≥1 snack/d; exploring the relevance of snacking patterns for overall diet and weight status is important to guide dietary counseling and public health strategies for obesity prevention. OBJECTIVE: This study examined intake of common energy-dense snack foods, total number of snacks consumed, frequency of consuming snacks prepared away from home, and frequency of snacking while watching television in adolescents and how these behaviors may be linked to diet and weight status. Relations were examined with attention to potential confounders that may help explain the mixed findings of previous research. METHODS: Survey measures of snacking behavior, a food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were completed by 2793 adolescents (53.2% girls, mean age = 14.4 y) in Minneapolis-St. Paul school classrooms in 2009-2010. Linear regression was used to examine associations with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and other potential confounding factors, such as meal skipping, underreporting energy intake, dieting to lose weight, and physical activity. RESULTS: Adolescents reported consuming a mean of 2.2 energy-dense snack food servings/d and 4.3 snacks/d and purchasing snacks prepared away from home on 3.2 occasions/wk. More than two-thirds of adolescents reported that they sometimes, usually, or always consumed a snack while watching television. The measures of snacking were directly associated (P < 0.01) with higher energy, lower fruit/vegetable, higher sugar-sweetened beverage, and more frequent fast-food intakes in all models except for one: energy-dense snack food servings were not related to sugar-sweetened beverage intake. A direct relation between daily servings of energy-dense snack foods and body mass index (BMI) z score was found; however, the snacking behaviors were inversely related to BMI z score (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The observed cross-sectional associations suggest that snack consumption is a risk factor for poor diet, but unless energy-dense foods are consumed, snacking does not consistently contribute to overweight in US adolescents. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27281807/Adolescent_Snacking_Behaviors_Are_Associated_with_Dietary_Intake_and_Weight_Status_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/jn.116.230334 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -